BIM - ndi sizingasinthe makhalidwe a CAD

M'nkhani yathu ya Geo Engineering, the Dzina la BIM (Kujambula Zowonjezera Zomangamanga), zomwe zimalola zinthu zosiyanasiyana zenizeni kuti zisamangidwe, osati muzithunzi zawo zokhazokha koma m'magulu awo osiyana siyana. Zikutanthauza kuti njira, mlatho, ndi valavu, ngalande, nyumba, ku lingaliro angakhale ndi umboni kuti adziwe muli kamangidwe kake, kumanga ndondomeko, zokhudza chilengedwe, ntchito, ntchito, perekani, kusamalira, kusinthidwa, kufunika kwa ndalama nthawi komanso kuphwanya.

Kugwiritsa ntchito njira za theorists amene geofumando nkhani imeneyi, njira ya kusasitsa BIM amagwirizana ndi patsogolo zolowetsa anafunika kukhala ndi mphamvu ya zida kugwila ndi kasamalidwe mudziwe (latsopano ndi alipo), kukhazikitsa mfundo lonse, deta zomangamanga ndi kumutsatira njira zosiyanasiyana zamoyo zinachita kugwirizana ndi kasamalidwe dziko. BIM ndi zovuta kulalikira kwa kamphindi pamene inu monga ubale umunthu ndi PLM (Mankhwala Lifecycle Management), kumene kupanga ndi ntchito makampani amafuna angayendetsere zofanana ngakhale sikuti kuchuluka mkombero monga maonekedwe geospatial.

Mfundo za mgwirizano wa maulendo awiri awa (BIM + PLM) ndi lingaliro la mizinda anzeru (Anzeru Cities), kumene makampani ambiri lalikulu ndi kuchotsa Choncho kufunika mwamsanga m'mizinda ikuluikulu monga irreversibility kuti nzeru zopanda malire mu sayansi ndi teknoloji yogwiritsidwa ntchito popanga zisankho.

Pansipa, ife tikufotokozera zina ndi zina zomwe zikugwirizana ndi BIM komanso mgwirizano wake ndi zipangizo zamakono zowonjezera.

Miyezo ya BIM

Bew ndi Richards amawonetsa njira ya kusakaniza ya BIM m'magulu anai, kuphatikizapo Mzere wa zero, monga momwe tawonera mu graph. Kufotokozera, kuti iyi ndiyo njira yochokera ku chikhalidwe, osati kuchuluka kwa chibadwidwe cha padziko lonse, chomwe chiri ndi zambiri zoti ziyankhule.

mizinda yabwino

BIM Level 0 (CAD).

Izi zikugwirizana ndi Mapulogalamu a Computer Aided, omwe amawoneka kuchokera ku malingaliro oyambirira omwe tawawona m'zaka za 80. Panthawi imeneyo, zofunikirazo zinali zogwiritsa ntchito zojambulajambula zomwe zakhala zikuchitika kale muzojambulazo, kuti zikhale zojambulidwa. Timakumbukira monga zitsanzo za kubadwa kwa AutoCAD ndi Microstation mu nthawi izi, kuti popanda kusokonekera pachithunzi chachikulu, iwo sanangopanga Zojambula; Zowonjezera zake zinanenedwa (Kujambula DWG, Design DGN). Mwinamwake mapulogalamu okha omwe ine ndinawawonetsera mopitirira ndi ArchiCAD, omwe kuchokera ku 1987 ankanena za Nyumba Yoyenera, ndi kunyozedwa kwa kukhala wa chi Hungary kuchokera muzaka za nkhondo yozizira. Zomwe zikuphatikizidwa panthawiyi ndizo kayendetsedwe ka deta yosasinthika kuchokera kuzinthu zina zokhudzana ndi kayendetsedwe ka polojekiti monga Mabanki, Kukonzekera, Malamulo, ndi zina zotero.

BIM Level 1 (2D, 3D).

Izi zimachitika zaka khumi zapitazi, pakukula kwa malo ogwira ntchito omwe angathe kutchedwa 2D. kuyamba kumanga limaperekanso danga 3D, ngakhale langoyamba, tikhoza kukumbukira zimene zinali chosasangalatsa kuchita ndi AutoCAD ndi Microstation J. R13 anali chiwonetsero cha ntchito atatu azithunzi omwe tikunena, koma anakhalabe zamoyo zina wapangidwa arcs, mfundo, ndi nkhope magulu a izi. Pankhani ya AutoDesk Mabaibulo SoftDesk monga mfundo Integrated ngati kali ku AutoCAD 2014 amene ziwembu msewu ndi kusanthula okhudza malo zinalengedwa, koma anali kuseri njira wakuda bokosi ngati EaglePoint anapanga kwambiri 'zokongola«. Microstation yakhala ikuphatikizanso Triforma, Geopack ndi AutoPlant pansi pa lingaliro lofanana, ndi maulendo a malo a mawonekedwe olowa mkati popanda mgwirizano wovomerezeka.

zaka khumi, ngakhale kuti panali ngakhale zitsanzo ndi Zinthu yovomerezeka lingaliro kuzindikira zoona penapake amakakamizidwa kusakanikirana ndi njira ofukula kwa AEC Yotengedwa kuchokela ku lachitatu maphwando, kuphatikizapo zomangamanga, Geospatial Makampani, Kupanga katundu ndi Wazojambula.

AutoDesk sakunena BIM kugula Revit mu 2002, koma kuphatikiza njira monga Civil3D adzakhala yaitali. Pakuti Bentley N'zochititsa chidwi athandizira XFM chithunzithunzi (Extensible Mbali Zitsanzo za Pakompyuta Zosonyeza) mu Microstation 2004 ndi pa kusintha kudziwika monga XM ndi kuthi ngati nsanja Heastad lachitatu chipani, RAM, Staad, Optram, Speedikon, ProSteel, PlantWise, RM- LEAP Bridge ndi HevaComp. Mu 2008 Bentley imayambitsa Microstation V8i, kumene XFM imakula ku I-chitsanzo ngati mgwirizano.

Mndandanda wa BIM 2 (BIMs, 4D, 5 D)

bim

Chinthu chovuta kwambiri mu gawo ili la BIM Level 2 wakhala chikhalidwe; Makamaka chifukwa makampani apadera akuyika mabanki ndipo amafuna kukakamiza ena kuti azigwiritsa ntchito zawo. Pulogalamu ya pulogalamu ya geospatial, wakhala pulogalamu yaulere yomwe yathandiza mphamvu kukhazikitsa ndi mgwirizano wogwirizana tsopano umene ukuimira Open Geospatial Consortium OGC. Koma m'munda wa CAD-BIM, sipanakhalepo njira yotsegulira OpenSource, kotero kuti pokhapokha pulogalamu yamasewera yokha yomwe ingathe kukhwima ndi LibreCAD, yomwe ili pokhapokha pa 1 Level -ngati sikutuluka mu 0 Level. Makampani apachibale atulutsa kumasulira kwaulere, koma maimidwe olowera ku BIM akhala akuchedwa, mwa mawu ena chifukwa cha ulamuliro waumphawi.

Ndizofunikira thandizo la a British, kuti chizolowezi chawo chochita pafupifupi chirichonse chokwera pansi, adatsogolera British Standard, monga zizindikiro BS1192: 2007 ndi BS7000: 4; Awa ndi okalamba ku mapepala a mapepala kupita ku BIM Level 1. BS8541: 2 imawonekera kale mudijito ya digito ndipo muzaka khumi BS1192: 2 ndi BS1192: 3.

Zimamveka chifukwa chake BentleySystems inachitira msonkhano wa pachaka wa Infrastructure ndi mphoto yake ku London, 2013, 2014, 2015 ndi 2016; komanso kupeza kwa makampani okhala ndi zida zapamwamba za makasitomale a British -Ndimayesetsa kuganizira za kayendetsedwe ka likulu ku Ulaya kupita ku Ireland-

Chotsatira, nthawi zonse m'makonzedwe a OGC, zakhala zotheka kupititsa patsogolo mgwirizano wovomerezeka womwe umapereka kwa BIM, makamaka GML, yomwe ili ndi zitsanzo monga InfraGML, CityGML ndi UrbanGML.

Ngakhale khama ambiri masiku ano zaka khumi ndi BIM mlingo 2 pofuna kukwaniritsa kasamalidwe lifecycle zitsanzo ukhoza kukhala mabuku kapena yovomerezeka ndi chabwino mangawa ndi 4D ndi 5D kuphatikizapo mapulogalamu Ntchito yomanga ndi Mphamvu. Zizoloŵezi za kutembenuka kwa chidziwitso zimatchulidwa pokha pokha mgwirizano / kupezeka kwa makampani komanso masomphenya onse oyenerera.

Mbali ya XIMUMI ya BIM (Kuphatikizana, Kugonjetsa kwa Moyo, 3D)

Mmene mgwirizanowu ukuyembekezeredwa mu BIM Level 3, kale pambuyo pa 2020 imaphatikizapo zoyembekezereka zomwe zimagwirizana zofanana ndi: Common Data (IFC). Ma Dictionaries Wowonjezera (Zowonjezera) ndi Zowonongeka (IFD).

mizinda yabwino

Ziyembekezeredwa kuti kusintha kwa Mpikisano wa Moyo kudzatsogolera Internet ya Zinthu (Internet ya Zinthu IOT), kumene amatsatira osati pamwamba nthaka, komanso makina ndi zomangamanga amene ali mbali ya nyumba, zinthu ntchito zoyendera katundu (makina) kudya m'banja zinthu zachilengedwe, makamaka kuzungulira moyo umene umagwira ntchito palamulo la boma ndi lachinsinsi la eni ake, Gliders, Designers ndi Investors.

Pankhani ya Bentley Systems, ndikukumbukira ndikuwona kuchokera ku 2013 kuwonetsera ku London, kuphatikizidwa kwa njira ziwiri za Project Definition Cycle:

  • PIM (Project Information Model) Breef - Concept - Tanthauzo - Chilengedwe - Ntchito yomanga / Komiti - Kutumiza / Kutseka
  • AIM Ntchito - Gwiritsani ntchito

Ndimasomphenya ochititsa chidwi, poganizira kuti izi ndizo zaka 10 zikubwerazi, koma kuti kupita patsogolo kumapangitsa kuti zinthu ziziyenda bwino. Ngakhale kwambiri njira umodzi, malangizo ntchito LUMIKIZANI Edition amalenga Pankakhala mwa chilengedwe limodzi zomwe Microstation ndi mawerengeredwe chida, ProjectWise kasamalidwe herrameinta polojekiti AssetWise Management Chida Opaleshoni , yomwe imatseka nthawi ziwiri zofunika, Opex ndi Capex ya BS1192: 3.

Tikuyembekezeranso kuti panthawi imeneyi deta idzaonedwa kuti ndi chithandizo chachitukuko, chomwe chimafuna kuti njira zizigawidwa, zikhazikitso zikhale zogwiritsidwa ntchito mokwanira, ndipo ndithudi zidzakhalapo mu nthawi yeniyeni ndi mgwirizano wogulitsa.

Mizinda ya Smart ndizolimbikitsa BIM

mizinda yabwinoVuto la BIM Level 3 ndiloti machitidwe sapangidwanso kudzera m'mafayilo koma kudzera mu ma BIM-Hubs. Kuchita chidwi kuti adzakhala Anzeru Cities, amene kale ntchito milandu monga Compenhague, Singapoore, Johannesburg kupanga zoyesayesa chidwi kuti kuphatikiza pa e-boma g a boma, tikalola mawu amenewa. Koma palinso zovuta, kuti mu malo a BIM Level 3, ntchito zonse za anthu zimakhala zosawerengeka. Izi zikutanthauza kuti zinthu monga zachuma, maphunziro, thanzi, ndi chilengedwe zikuphatikizidwa muzondomeko zogwirizana ndi malo. Ndithudi, ife sadzaona Zochita izi zinchito mu zaka khumi, ndi zokayikitsa ngati ngakhale kuti kwenikweni kukhala mwa mawu a sing'anga, poganizira kuti zolinga ndikuonetsetsetsa kusintha khalidwe la moyo wa anthu a dziko lino lapansi -kapena midzi ija- ndi kubwezeretsa kuwonongeka kwa chilengedwe chonse -zomwe sizidalira mizinda ingapo-.

Ngakhale kuti ma Cities Smart sali pambali, kodi chikuchitika ndi makampani akuluakulu omwe amachititsa kuti zipangizo zamakono zisawonongeke.

HEXAGON, ndi kupeza makampani monga Leica akhoza kulamulira adani deta m'munda, ndi kupeza Intergraph ERDAS + angathe kulamulira mawerengeredwe okhudza malo, tsopano kupanga njira Muzisamala posachedwapa ndi AutoDesk kulamulira kapangidwe kupanga ndi makanema ojambula. Osanenapo makampani onse kuphatikizapo emporium, amene zimaloza ku chinthu chomwecho.

Komano, Bentley akulamulira kamangidwe, ntchito ndi mkombero osiyanasiyana makampani Building, zomangamanga, Civil Engineering ndi Industrial. Komabe, Bentley sizikuwoneka kukhala ndi chidwi kuba malo ena, ndi kuwona momwe Kodi mgwirizano ndi Trimble anagula pafupifupi onse mpikisano zokhudza kasamalidwe ndi kumutsatira kumunda, Siemens ali ndi ulamuliro mkulu wa opanga ndi Microsoft zomwe cholinga chake ndi kupita kwa deta zomangamanga -kotero kuti musatayidwe kunja, chifukwa mu chiwonetsero ichi muli otayika ndi Windows yanu Office-

Kodi ife tikuwona, makampani akuluakulu ndi kubetcherana pa BIM kwa kuthekera chili pafupi ndi nkhwangwa zitatu zimene zimayenda opaleshoni ya Anzeru Cities: Media Yopanga, Wonjezerani zomangamanga ndi luso zofuna watsopano mankhwala / ntchito. Zoonadi, zinyama zazikulu zimakhalabe zofanana ndi ESRI, IBM, Oracle, Amazon, Google, kutchula ena mwa iwo omwe timawadziwa amasangalatsidwa ndi mayiko awo a Smart Cities.

N'zoonekeratu kuti bizinesi yotsatira ndi ma Cities Smart, pothandizana ndi BIM + PLM kumene sipadzakhalanso Microsoft yomwe ikugwira 95% ya msika. Ichi ndi chitsanzo chovuta kwambiri, komanso zikuwonetseratu kuti makampani omwe samagwiritsa ntchito malondawa adzasiyidwa kupanga CAD, maofesi a Excel ndi ma CRM otsekedwa. Mabizinezi oyenera kuyanjanitsidwa ndi omwe sali osiyana ndi miyambo ya zomangamanga, Engineering, Construction ndi Operation (AECO); omwe amayang'anira ntchito zina za umunthu pansi pa njira ya momwe geo ikufotokozera, monga kupanga, magetsi, makampani, ulimi, makamaka kayendetsedwe ka mphamvu ndi zachilengedwe.

GIS idzaphatikizidwa ku BIM pansi pa masomphenya a Smart Cities. Pakalipano iwo akuphatikizidwa mu deta kukonzekera ndi kuwonetsera, koma zikuwoneka kuti ali ndi masomphenya osiyana; Mwachitsanzo mawerengeredwe zomangamanga si GIS, koma koposa apadera mu kusanthula ndi kumutsatira zinthu danga, mu projecting zochitika mu posamalira zinthu zachirengedwe ndipo m'lifupi mwake sayansi lapansi. Poganizira gawo chimodzi (6D) kuti m'nthawi ya mizinda anzeru, kuchuluka, ntchito, yobwezeretsanso ndi kupoletsa mphamvu adzakhala zofunika, ndiye muyenera mphamvu kuti tsopano zambiri GIS zapaderazi. Koma kudziwa mphamvu kupanga madzi beseni limodzi kudziwa mmene ntchito chofunika kwa mita kiyubiki konkire pali kusiyana kwambiri; zomwe zidzakwaniritsidwa mpaka momwe ntchitoyi ikuphatikizidwa ngati gawo limodzi la magawo awiriwa.

Pomaliza.

inu egeomatesPali zambiri zoti mulankhule, ndipo ndikuyembekeza kupitiliza kuganizira pa mutu uwu. Pakuti tsopano, akatswiri Geo-Engineering tili ndi vuto aligning tokha kuti sizingasinthe ndipo phunzirani kwa mlingo luso, chifukwa iwo akadali zokayikitsa ngati Roadmap kugwiritsa BIM angathe kuchitidwa popanda kudalira Ntchito Gulu akutsogolera. Makamaka chifukwa BIM ali kuti azionedwa poyamba ziwiri: Imodzi mwa zinthu mu luso, maphunziro, msinkhu ntchito, ncholinga polojekiti ndiponso ndiye kaonedwe maboma amene amayembekezera mfupi osiyanasiyana , kuiwala kuti zizoloŵezi zawo zozoloŵera nthawi zambiri zimakhala zochepa kwambiri. Kuwonjezera apo, kwa iwo omwe ali mumzinda omwe angathe kuganizira kale za Cities Smart, n'kofunika kuti pakhale chidwi pa nzika, osati pa teknoloji.

Ngati chochitika ichi chikukwaniritsidwa, maloto oyambirira a mmodzi wa alangizi anga, amene akuyembekeza kudzala mahekitala a 3,000 a m'nkhalango ya mahogany, ndi kayendetsedwe ka moyo kovomerezeka kamene kakugwirizana ndi kukula kwake, kadzakhala chenicheni; kotero izo zikhoza kupita ku banki chaka ndi kubweza ngongole yoyamba kuti pang'onopang'ono azipindula nawo ndalama. Mu zaka za 20 mutakhala ndi mamita miliyoni imodzi ya mamitala okhala ndi ndalama zomwe mungathe kuthetsa osati pokhapokha pantchito yanu, koma ngongole ya kunja kwanu.

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