Kodi kayendetsedwe ka nthaka kakakhala kotani? - Masomphenya a Cadastre a 2034

Kufotokozera momwe kayendetsedwe ka nthaka ku 2034 kungakhaleko sikukuwoneka ngati kosavuta, ngati tiwona kusintha komwe kwakhalakuchitika m'zaka zapitazi za 20. Komabe, zochitikazo ndizoyesa kachiwiri pa zomwe zakhala zikuchitidwa zaka 20 Zisanachitike Cadastre 2014. Kusamvetsera kwenikweni mawu awa kungakhale kotayika munthu, malo ena kapena mtundu wonse.

2034 mukuganiza kuti dzikoli lidzakhala anayamba ndi kusinthidwa ndi nzika mwaufulu zikumveka otukwana. Koma kuti zinali kasinthidwe sanjira pamaso tinkadziwa OpenStreet Map, amene kuika mu funso ngati anayambitsa cartographic kuyenera kukhalapo kapena ngati gwero ife ntchito kulimbikitsa sanjira migwirizano pakati pa ophunzira ndi anadzipereka yekha zochita normative, ndipo pomwe zolowetsa mosalephera m'munsi monga mokhazikika chitsanzo mtunda ndi Kanema zithunzi kusinthidwa kawirikawiri kwambiri.

Masomphenya a Cadastre m'tsogolomu zaka 20

Zomwe zimasintha ku Cadastre zimakhala zovuta kwambiri, chifukwa ntchito zawo zimakhala zovuta kuposa mapu ena. Kulumikizana kwake ndi malamulo, ndalama, chuma zimapangitsa kuti azigwirizana mosiyana ndi zomwe amadziwa komanso komanso njira. Komabe, komanso Zithunzi zojambula zithunzi zikanakhoza kufa pa nthawi yake yabwino ya ulemereroPamene teknoloji imakhala yowonjezera demokalase komanso zofuna zenizeni zenizeni zowunikira, kulondola kwachindunji, siginecha ya akatswiri ndi kuyendetsedwa kwa njirayi zimayambitsa chiopsezo chosafuna kukwaniritsa zofunikira zosasinthika. Mwachitsanzo, tiyeni tiwone momwe angapangire mapulojekiti ambiri amene tangophunzira kumene kwa ana athu, akugwiritsa ntchito ntchito zawo za tsiku ndi tsiku; kapena ndi angati ophunzira omwe amakhala mu laibulale ya sukulu kuti amalize ntchito yawo; Mosasamala kanthu ndi mafunso ophunzirira omwe wikipedia ali nayo, kusinthika kwake, mgwirizano wogwirizana ndikugwirizana ndi injini yafukufuku wa Google akutumiza makalata osungiramo mabuku kumisamu yosungiramo zinthu zakale.

Chinthu china chomwe tiyenera kuganizira pa nkhani ya cadastre ndi chakuti mfundo zomwe zili pakati pa mayiko sizili zofanana. Kwa maiko a ku Ulaya omwe ali kale ndi chiwerengero cha malo awo ku 100% pa dziko lonse komanso ntchito yovomerezeka ya boma, kuyimika muzithunzi zitatu ndi zinayi n'kofunika. Mkhalidwe wotsutsana kwambiri ndi mayiko omwe chithunzi chawo cha 2D sichinakwaniritsidwe, kuganiza kwathunthu kwatha nthawi zonse ndipo pamwamba pa zonse zomwe kusintha kwa ndale kumadzetsa kuthetsedwa kwa gulu lonse la akatswiri odziwa, omwe angatayike ntchito yawo ponyamula zokhudzana ndi magalimoto ovuta ndi -izo sizimatichititsa ife kuseka- kukhala gawo la moto ku ofesi ya a meya kuti, pakati pa zofuna zina, akuyesetsa kuchotsa ziphuphu.

Masomphenya a cadastre zaka XMUMX zaka zamtsogolo sizidziyesa kukhala pachokha chifukwa cha cabals kapena mawonetseredwe pa zomwe zilipo. M'malo mwake, ndizochita zolimbitsa thupi zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamaganizo amodzi omwe amagwiritsidwa kale ntchito komanso njira zomwe akatswiri amadziwira njira zosasinthika. Koma sitiyenera kutsimikiza kuti zofunazo zingayambitse kukhazikitsidwa kwafupikitsa; monga momwe zinaliri zambiri mu Africa kumene nzikazo zidapanda kudziwa foni kwa telephony ya fuko lotsatira. Ndicho chifukwa chake zitsanzo monga Cadastre zoyenera-kwa-cholinga iwo akuphatikizidwa mu zokambirana za ulaliki zosokoneza pankhaniyi; pogwiritsa ntchito zofunikira za mamiliyoni a katundu omwe ayenera kutchulidwa ndi kuvomereza nzika m'phiri lomwe limasankha mutu ndi "zosavuta kwambiri»Koma kumene kuli mgwirizano wogwirizana ndi oyandikana naye; M'malo mopanda kanthu ndi kuyembekezera wandale wina kuti apereke chinachake chovuta.

Mawu kwa zaka 20 m'manja mwa wopusa-wamasomphenya - akhoza kupanga lingaliro la National System of Property Management, kutsegulira kuwonetserana pagulu, ndi mfundo za ufulu, zoletsedwa ndi maudindo asanayambe kuonedwa kuti ndizowonongeka; -wachilendo -wachidziwitso chodziwika bwino ndipo uhule wina ukhoza kuthetsa njira zowonongeka ngati sizikutanthauza nthawi, ndalama, chidziwitso komanso chidziwitso. Pamene zokometsera njira ochiritsira ndi mwayi kuchita, adzakhala ofunda malonda (kalata ya miyambo ndi ufulu) ndi nkhani ya chuma eni kupeza tsopano anapereka gombe, ndipo kuganiza kutenga msewu kuti oyimilira a msonkho kupyolera pawindo la Ali-express traceability mu nthawi yeniyeni.

Koma Hei, pamene inu misala kudziwa m'dziko lanu, ine kubwerera ku zimene zinanenedwa mu ndime yoyamba ya kulemba izi, kuti mawu Cadastral 2034 ndi chaka chachiwiri chimene chinali Cadastral 2014, amene akufuna kuyamba kulankhula.

Pamaso pa Cadastre 2014

Cadastre ndi yatsopano, poyerekeza ndi zolembera za katundu, zomwe zikugwirizana ndi zizindikiro zomwe zakhala zikugwirizanitsidwa kwa zaka mazana ambiri pa maziko a malamulo olembetsa omwe amapitirira malamulo enieni, osuntha, amalonda kapena nzeru. Kuvomerezeka kwa Cadastral zolinga kunafikira mochedwa ndi kusintha kwa mapepala opangidwira kumatanthauza tanthauzo la nthaka kwa anthu: kugonjetsa, nkhondo, kuwombera, kuyendetsa mafakitale, makompyuta; Kuwonjezera apo, mafunde a chisinthiko a zitsanzo zachuma adabweretsa njira zothandizira mauthenga ndi kupititsa patsogolo ntchitoyi mukumverera komwe kunabwera kwa ife ngati zidutswa zosawerengeka.

Infographic imafotokozera mwachidule maonekedwe akuluakulu omwe Cadastre wakhala nawo, mu nthawi zosiyana:

  • Paradigm ya kuyesa ndi msonkho pamtunda, ndi malo oyamba a dziko monga chuma chochokera kwa anthu. N'zosadabwitsa kuti njira imeneyi yakhala yaitali ku Latin America, poganiza kuti ngakhale pambuyo pa ufulu wa mayiko awa a ku Spain, chitsanzo chachuma chinapitirizabe kukhala chikhalidwe cha anthu akubwera ndi chikomyunizimu. Mu infographic ichi ndi chidutswa choyamba cha puzzles, msonkho wotchedwa cadastre ngati ntchito yofunikira.
  • Paradigm ya msika wa msika, ndi kusinthika kwa chitonthozo monga tanthauzo la dziko lapansi. Izi zinadza ndi kusintha kwa mafakitale pakati pa 1800 ndi 1950. Zambiri za maziko a dzikoli zikupitirizabe kugwiritsidwa ntchito pa msika wa msika, choncho gawo lomwelo linapereka pulogalamu ya cadastre monga chigwirizano chogwirizana ndi ndalama.
  • Paradigm yoyang'anira nthaka, ndi masomphenya a dziko lapansi ngati chitsimikizo. Izi zinadza ndi masomphenya atsopano a kumanganso nkhondo pambuyo pa nkhondo, pamene mabungwe ambiri a boma anali ndi kukonzanso kosangalatsa, kuphatikizapo Cadastre ndi Registry. Izi zinali zaka zofunika ku Register kwa Buku, kupita ku mafilimu monga microfilm ndipo, pa nkhani ya Cadastre, chisonkhezero cha mayiko apadziko lonse chinathandizira njira zamakono zamakono, makamaka ndi zofuna za chitetezo cha dziko ndi Cold War. Chotsatira chake, chidutswa chachuma chachuma chimakonza njira zowonetsera zomwe zimachokera ku zitsanzo zosavuta ku Anglo-Saxon zomwe zimakhala ndi zochitika zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi ndalama zowonongeka ndi zowonongeka iwo amapitirizabe mpaka masiku awa m'mayiko ambiri a ku Latin America.
  • Paradigm ya chitukuko chokhazikika, ndi dziko lapansi ngati malire ochepa. Izi amabadwa ndi ulimi zambiri, chiyambi cha khumi 80, pamene kuthekera kwa zipangizo digito m'malo mwa mapu ndi nkhani digito poganiza zokambiranazo ndipo mogwirizana ndi mabungwe ena a mudziwe cadastral. Mofananamo, chidwi chophatikizana pakati pa Cadastre ndi Registry kupitirira kugwirizana ndi kusinthanitsa deta, kuphweka kwa nzika mwa kuphatikiza kwa njira. Chotsatiracho chinachokera ku zopotoka zomwe zinkayenera kusonkhanitsidwa zonse mu zikopa zazikulu "borges»Kufikira malingaliro a kuyika chingwe pakati pa Cadastre ndi Registry kuti iwo agwirizane. Kumvetsetsa kuti mulingo womwewo uli m'gulu la mtengo wapatali wa kayendetsedwe ka nthaka osati mu chigawo chowombera chakhala chopweteka mpaka lero; kuvulaza nzika kuti zomwe akuyembekeza ndi ntchito zabwino.

Registry Land 2014

M'nkhaniyi yomaliza Cadastro 2014 anabadwa. Cha m'ma nineties bungwe la International Federation ya oyeza (mkuyu) kumachititsa munthu wa Zachikondi ubwino revitalize udindo wake, akuthandiza zimenezi adanyamuka kodi kukhala Land kaundula m'zaka lotsatira 20. Zikutifikitsa kuganizira makhalidwe abwino ndipo mumaganiza kuti anali akuyendera padziko lonse kasamalidwe dziko; ndi ndondomeko ya momwe Cadastre ingakhalire mu 2014.

pepala linaonekera maziko nthanthi ambiri lerolino zingaoneke zoonekeratu kwambiri Komabe tikukamba za 1994, nthawi pamene kanthu anayamba ndi lofalitsidwa mu 1998. Kuti 1994 anali chabe lonjezo Windows 95, tinali Windows 3.11 magulu, AutoCAD R13 wa kuti kayeseleledwe mazenera sanali kwambiri pamaso alipidwa mdima chophimba R12, Microstation SE pa tingachipeze powerenga Clipper ustation kuthamanga exhuberantes koma zida mtengo Intergraph; ufulu mapulogalamu anali fallacy wa nerds ndi ntchito intaneti otchedwa makonde ngati Yahoo, Lycos, chimwemwe ndi AltaVista kuti ayenera kufika kuchokera ku cafe Internet kapena winawake wa modemu olumikizidwa kwa landline foni.

Pofuna kupewa chiwopsezo chowonekera kuchokera ku kristalo, zochitikazo ziyenera kukhazikitsidwa pazochitika zabwino zomwe zilipo komanso ndi njira zowonetsera kumene nkhani ya cadastral idzasinthidwe motsatira ndondomeko, zida, kukula ndi kugwirizana kwa ochita masewera okhudzana ndi gawo

Mauthenga a 6 2014 Cadastre.

1. Zochitika zonse za gawoli kuphatikizapo malamulo a boma ndi zoletsedwa

Njirayi inachititsa kuti Cadastre yodalirika isayambe kuwona gawo lenileni la zenizeni, potsata mfundo zokhazokha pofuna kulemba maonekedwe kapena kuika patsogolo pazomwe ndalamazo zikuyendera. Izi zikutanthawuza kuti maziko a cadastre ndiwo gawo lawo pa "zowona", ndi chithunzi cha momwe zinthu zilili m'deralo, kufunafuna kudziŵa zamakono zokhudzana ndi chikhalidwe ndi chidziwitso. Kuwonjezera apo, lingaliro la kukwanira, kotero kuti zinthu zakuthupi zomwe ziri pakati pa malire a katundu, monga misewu, mabedi, mabombe, ndi zina zotero. zikhoza kusankhidwa pamalingaliro omwewo monga katundu pazochitika zenizeni, kupeŵa kuti m'tsogolo katunduyo akupitiliza kupempha zoyezetsa zomwe zimalowa m'madera ogwiritsidwa ntchito pagulu.

Chiwerengero china cha mawu awa ndi kugwirizana kwa deta yosadziwika, yomwe imakhudza madera, ntchito, ntchito kapena malingaliro a katunduyo. Zikutanthauza kuti deta okhudza malo zomangamanga kuti ntchito deta monga malo otetezedwa, m'madera chiopsezo, ntchito mapulani dziko, etc., akuphatikizapo malamulo maubale okhudza malo ndi dziko, zikugwirizananso monga kumawononga kuti zimaonekera malonda yokhala kapena zakuthupi panthawi yomwe wogwira ntchitoyo ayenera kupereka kalasi kapena kupereka chilolezo. Mu 19152 ISO muyezo mfundo izi zimatithandiza maubwenzi okhudzidwa pa mfundo ya gawo mu asapita awiri yachiwiri Acronym RRR (Ufulu, ufulu Udindo) ndipo izi "palibe msonkho chuma" deta amatchedwa zinthu m'dziko malamulo.

Mu mzere womwewo, ziganizo zina za 5 zinakulira m'ndandanda ya 2014 Cadastral yomwe ikulimbikitsidwa ndi FIG mu 1998. Chitsanzo chachitsanzo chomwe chikuwonetsedwa kumanja chili ndi lingaliro la fayilo yotsogoleredwa ndi Cadastral, yomwe ili ndi kayendedwe ka chidziwitso cha zinthu zomwe zingakhale zosiyana pakati pa maboma omwe akhala akuyang'ana deta ndi optics osiyanasiyana, kuonetsetsa kuti akugwirizana ndi ufulu wodzilamulira ndi malingaliro a kasamalidwe ka deta kuti apititse mfundo ya chivomerezo:

  • Nambala yosiyana kwambiri ya dziko yomwe inalembedwa m'ndandanda wa 36,
  • Makhalidwe awo akuchokera ku Cadastre, machitidwe awo alamulo akuchokera ku maonekedwe / osadziwika ndi machenjezo a zosayenerera, makhalidwe awo ovomerezeka ndi maphwando okondweretsedwa.
  • Zowonongeka za njira zomwe zimaperekedwa (kutumizidwa) muzinthu zosiyana za umishonale koma zomwe sizinalandire chisankho kapena kuchotsedwa.
  • Zowonongeka, zotsutsana pakati pa zenizeni zakuthupi ndi zalamulo.

M'munsimu muli zotsatira za chinthu cha LADM, monga:

  • Njira zomwe zimakhazikitsidwa ndi ojambula zimagwirizanitsidwa ndikugwirizanitsa ntchito zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zoyenera kutsatizana kapena zosaoneka bwino pamaso pa nzika yomwe ikufuna kupeza zabwino.
  • Zotsatira za chiyanjano cha malamulo (zovomerezeka mwa njira yolembedwera-komanso zosavomerezeka), ndizotheka kuona miyambo yakale, yomwe ikuwoneka ngati yopanda mphamvu koma yowonekera.
  • Zotsatira za zochitika zapakati pa malo oletsedwa / udindo.

Ngati deta amachokera kwa kachitidwe ntchito m'dziko kaundula, kaundula Regularization kapena chiwembu wapadera, munthu aliyense mungagwiritse ntchito kuti konza chifukwa wawo waumishonale ndi nzika kapena wosuta a ndondomeko kukhulupirira kuti deta ichi ndi choonadi mtheradi. Kuyambira tsamba zenizeni malamulo angakhale anasonyeza ofanana maganizo enieni pepala ndi mitundu monga liens, zanyumba kapena maulalo timva zina monga malonda, aluntha, Security Chidwi ndi chimodzimodzi ngati anafunsira pa ntchitoyi zinthu zenizeni akanatero malo ovomerezeka alamulo omwe ali ndi maphwando okondweretsedwa mu zochitika / zoletsedwa zomwe zimapangitsa kukhala ndi chidwi. Pa mlingo wa mabungwe a boma chinthu ichi lonse kuonekera popanda malamulo, ngati ndondomeko ovomerezeka lolunjika pa dzuwa kupeza ndalama ndi chophukacho wa midzi yolamuliridwa ndi mafumu pakati pa boma ndi nzika zisudzo yomweyo monga odziwitsa, ndipo boma, m'tawuni curator kapena kuyeza. Kutanthauzira zimene zingakhale kupeza lotseguka kwa nzika liri nkhani chilungamo ndale ndi profitability, monga izo zikanakhoza kukhala mfulu chiyani pamwamba (mbuye deta), ndi wotsala anangotengeka Baibulo ndi galeta logwwiritsa pokagwira zomwe zimatsogolera kupanga chidziwitso chachangu ndi deta yonse.

2. Palibe kusiyana pakati pa mapu ndi marekodi

Mawu awa akuwonekera kwambiri, ngakhale kuti kwa 1994 anali maloto, poganizira kuti mayesero odziwika bwino adawona CAD yokhudzana ndi zolembera za malo osungiramo malo, komanso pakati pa malo ovuta kwambiri omwe malo sankalengedwera aphunzitsi ambiri kwa maubwenzi ambiri, monga maere ndi eni ambiri kapena eni eni okhala ndi maere ambiri; chifukwa chake dzina la mwini wake liyenera kubwerezedwa m'mabuku ochuluka monga momwe zikanakhalira m'deralo ... popanda kudziŵa zambiri za ziphuphu za 16 zokha.

Mosakayikira, mawu awa adawunikira malangizo osangalatsa pa mutu wa geospatial womwe ukugwiritsidwa ntchito pakayendetsedwe ka malo. Ngakhale zili zofunikira kukumbukira kuti lingaliro loyambiriralo linali lotanthauza kuti "palibe kulekanitsa pakati pa deta ya Cadastre ndi Land Registry data" osati kokha "mapu» mbiri ya cadastral ».

Izi zimapangitsanso kuyanjana ndi kuyanjana kwa deta yomwe ikuchokera ku mabungwe ena omwe "malamulo amtundu" amakhudza ntchito, maudindo kapena ntchito za katundu; pofika pamakalata owerengeka omwe akuwonetsera mautumiki kuzipangizo zapakati pa malo ndi ndondomeko ndi malamulo osagwirizana pakati pa zitsanzo. Mwina mutu wapamwamba mwa izi unali kukula kwa miyezo ya OGC yomwe imakankhidwa ndi mapulogalamu aulere komanso omvera mwachangu ndi mapulogalamu enieni.

3. Zithunzizo zidzalowe m'malo mwa mapu a cadastral

Ntchito bwino izi anavala muyezo ISO-19152, kuyang'ana zophunzirira kuphweka ubale (RRR) pakati pa makalasi zomwe zimapanga zenizeni thupi (anthu, zimachititsa chilumbachi), chowonadi amatsatira (utsogoleri wagawo okhudza malo wagawo) ndi magwero a kujambula zowonjezera (Chitsime).

Zikumveka mosavuta kunena, ndipo zojambula pamanja zikuwoneka zophweka. Ngakhale kutenga izo ku ISO chifukwa cha kukhazikitsidwa kwake kunapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kwambiri kuposa zomwe zinkayembekezeredwa pa zosowa zoyambirira. Ntchito yoyamba imatchedwa Core Cadastre Domain Model (CCDM), yomwe inadzatchedwa LADM, idatha kukhala ISO mu 2012.

Ndipo ngati ena angaganize kuti ISO ikhoza kukhala yosafunikira, timawerengera Cadastro 2014 zaka zoyambirira zomwe tikudziwa kuti lamulo la semantics linali lofunikira - ndipo likadali vuto. Kuwerenga koyamba kudabweretsa chisokonezo pamitu ndi mawu, makamaka kwa iwo omwe ali ndi miyambo ya semantics ndipo amakonda kufunsa m'malo mongogwiritsa ntchito polemba mawu. Mwachitsanzo, liwu loti â € œcastra â € “cadastreâ € silidatengedwe kutanthauzira chifukwa pazinthu monga Holland, Cadastre ndiye Registry; akapatula pamlingo womwewo amawutcha "kayendetsedwe ka malo" omwe kenako ku Spain amawoneka wokongola ngati "kayendetsedwe ka malo"; Popeza kuti izi zikuwoneka ngati pamalo okha osati ubale wake wonse, Aenor amatanthauzira kuti "Dongosolo la gawo", lomwe m'maiko ambiri ndichinthu chovuta komanso chosangalatsa chogwirizana ndi oyang'anira mabungwe. Zitsanzo zina ndi liwu loti "gawo" lomwe ma Anglo-Saxons sakusunthika koma lomwe limalankhulidwa ku Spain nthawi zambiri limasankha zakumidzi ndipo siliphatikizanso zomwe zikusintha monga momwe zikusonyezedwera ndi malamulo aboma.

Izi ndi zomwe ISO-19152 imafuna, kuti awonetse masantics a "domain". Ngakhale zimakhala ndi zolembedwa zomwe zimayambitsa nzeru zake ndizokhazikitsira kukhazikitsidwa kwake; kuwona kuti maonekedwe a UML sali ovuta kugulitsa kwa opanga zisankho omwe amayembekezera zotsatira zomaliza kwa nzika.

Apa ndi kosavuta kufotokozera mgwirizano ndi kusiyana pakati pawo LADM ndi ISO-19152.

LADM imabadwa kuchokera ku masomphenya padziko lonse, za machitidwe ndi zochitika zaka 20 m'tsogolomu mu Ulamuliro wa Land. LADM ili mwanjira inayake filosofi.

Mndandanda wa ISO 19152 wochokera ku chikhalidwe cha padziko lonse, kuimiritsa masantics a Ulamuliro wa Land. ISO ndi mkhalidwe wogwiritsira ntchito filosofi ya LADM.

Pa nkhaniyi yokhudzana ndi kukhazikitsidwa kumeneku kuli kofunikira kulemba, osati njira ya UML yotsatila ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa optics zamakono pa nkhani ndi zitsanzo pa zochitika; zingakhale khama zotsatira chidwi kwambiri pa kukhazikitsidwa pa mlingo ndondomeko, systematization zinakuchitikirani ndi zabwino magawowa angachite malonda msinkhu. Ngakhaletu zitsanzo ngati Honduras, lomwe limaona pafupifupi onse a LADM nzeru boma lake WACHINYAMATA-SINAP popanda anapatsa mfundo anthu, mfundo ya kuchokera pa CCDM ku 2005 walola ndi kusasunthika kosangalatsa ngakhale kusakhazikika komwe dziko lino lakhala mu zaka 15 zapitazo; kapena milandu ngati Nicaragua popanda kusonyeza ndi kukhazikitsa muyezo, lonse SIICAR kumasulira injini akusonyeza kukhazikitsidwa kwa mlingo pafupifupi 2 kumvera pa mulingo.

4. The cadastre mu mawonekedwe athu adzakhala chinthu chakale

Chifukwa cha chitsanzo ichi ndi kuganiziranso za mawonekedwe a thupi, zokhumba zimayambira zomwe zimakhudza zinthu monga cadastral nomenclature. Kalekale, mafungulo a cadastral anali okhudzana ndi ma chiwerengero cha 30, kumene zidziwitso za malo ndi zolamulila zinali zosakanizidwa; Ngakhale zinali zachikondi kwa ogwiritsa ntchito mu bungweli, kwa wogwiritsa ntchito yomaliza iwo anali ovuta komanso osakondwera ngati ambiri mwa ziwerengerozo anali zero. Mwachitsanzo, ma nomenclatures amenewo anaphatikizidwa ngati malowa anali kumidzi; ngati izi zikanakhala ngati tawuni, ndiye kuti adasintha chifukwa chiwerengero chawo sichinali chofanana. Kwambiri maganizo amene anabwera kuchokera kasamalidwe akamagwiritsa thupi, ndiye kumbukirani kuti poyamba mfundo m'tawuni-kumidzi anali kugwirizana ndi kukula kwake kusindikiza mapu chomaliza, omwe mitima mamba 1 midzi kunali koyenera: 1,000 pamene chifukwa mamba kumidzi 1: 5,000 kapena 1: 10,000.

Kulingalira pa ma digito kumapangitsa kusokonekera ndi ndondomekozi, kuganizira zomwe zimapindulitsa kwa nzika yomwe ikufunikira nambala yosavuta ndikuwonetseratu komwe malo ayenera kupitirizabe kudziwika ngakhale kusintha kwa masisitoma mwa kusintha kwa malire apakati, ngakhale kusintha masewera ake, ngakhale kuti kusintha mizinda ya kumidzi ndi kumidzi. Osati kuti masamba awa sali oyeneranso, koma ngati ali mu matebulo amalingaliro, akhoza kusintha nthawi iliyonse popanda chinthu kusintha icho; kupatula ngati, kusintha kumeneku kumatanthauza kusinthidwa kwa geometry yake.

Izi zimapangitsanso njira zowonetsera zowonjezereka, monga zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'zinthu monga mapasipoti, mapepala, mapepala apatsulo galimoto (kupereka chitsanzo). Ziwerengero zingapo za 30 zingakhale zachikondi; tikhoza kukhala nawo mtundu wa galimoto, chiwerengero cha zitseko zomwe zili, chiwerengero cha mawilo, chizindikiro ndi mwinanso nthawi yomwe mwini wake wagonana pachigaro chakumbuyo; koma mbaleyo ndi yaying'ono ndipo mawerengero owerengeka amakhalapo; wapolisi wa pamsewu ali ndi chikumbumtima choipa ndipo akugwira ntchito kukumbukira nambala mosavuta ngakhale kuti galimoto ikufulumira; kenaka ziyenera kusinthika m'kupita kwa nthawi pamene ndi galimoto yomweyo. Kuchokera pamenepo, njira zimatha kusintha chiwerengero chochokera ku 10 chiwerengero cha chiwerengero (zochokera ku 10) ku chiphatikizidwe cha ziwerengero khumizo ndi zilembo za 26 zazithunzi (maziko a 36);

Chitsanzo cha kusambira kwa 10 kutembenuzidwa ku 36 maziko: 0311000226 amatanthauza 555TB6. Izi zikutanthauza kuti ndi ma chiwerengero cha 6 akhoza kuthandizira zokwanira khumi biliyoni, kukhala ndi kukula komweko (6 chiwerengero). Monga zosinthika ndizotheka kutembenuka ndikugwirizana ndi nambala yapitayi; pakuti nzikayo ndondomekoyi ndi mndandanda waifupi, mkati mwake ndi code ikhoza kusungidwa zizindikiro kapena nambala yotsatizana pa msinkhu wa dziko. Kuti nditsimikizire momwe izi zimagwirira ntchito, ndimapereka google iyi link.

http://www.unitconversion.org/numbers/base-10-to-base-36-conversion.html

5. Ntchito yogwirizana pakati pa makampani aumwini ndi a boma

Izi zakhala ndi zotsatira zogwirizana ndi zitsanzo zapagulu zothandizira anzawo, kufunafuna kusamutsira ku chipatala zinthu zomwe sizinthu zogwira ntchito ku bungwe la boma. M'zaka zina, Cadastre anapanga kuuka kwathunthu kumunda, ndi ziphuphu za anthu omwe amalembedwa ntchito ndi bungwe; lero ndi zophweka kwambiri kugwiritsira ntchito opaleshoniyi. Mofananamo, digitization ndi Tingafinye deta kulembedwa thupi, walola payekha gawo kupanga ntchito amene ali "osakhalitsa" kapena ngati kuthamanga bwino kokha kamodzi, kupewa ndalama zipangizo zimasintha ndi nthawi

Komabe, ndizovuta kuti pakhale zambiri zomwe zingayambitse pang'onopang'ono. Kupititsa patsogolo mabanki kumabanki kumawoneka kosavuta komanso pafupifupi kovomerezeka, koma kupereka chidziwitso kumafuna mtundu wina wa chitsimikizo osati kokha mwa chitetezo komanso mu udindo walamulo ndi udindo.

6. Ndalama ku Cadastre idzabwezeretsedwa

Nkhaniyi siipereka zambiri, ndipo tikuyembekeza kuigwira pamagazini yotsatira. Koma makamaka mfundo imeneyi imachokera ku mfundo yakuti kulandidwa kwadzidzidzi, kuchoka ku thupi kupita ku digito kapena kumanga kachitidwe kakang'ono kamakhala kamodzi. Ndipo izo zachitika bwino. Ntchito yotsatira yomwe ikuchitika ndikusinthika sayenera kuitanitsa ngongole ku mabungwe apadziko lonse, koma iyenera kukhala mu chiwerengero cha kubwezeretsanso chuma chomwe chinapangidwa kuchokera ku zatsopano muzinthu zatsopano ndi mautumiki.

2034 Land Registry Declarations

Kwa 2014 kafukufuku wapangidwa momwe ulendo unali, kupita patsogolo ndi zotsatira zatsopano zoganizira zimene zidzachitike m'zaka zotsatira za 20.

M'mbuyomuyi, tikukambirana zochitika zazikulu zomwe zasokoneza kusintha kwadzidzidzi pa cadastre, monga malo osungirako zinthu ndi malo, zochitika zapakati pa anthu; mofananamo, masomphenya omwe apereka zofuna zatsopano ku Cadastre monga Ulamuliro wa Land, Ulamuliro wa gawoli ndi zomwe zingakhale zoganiziridwa m'tsogolomu ndi kuphweka m'malingaliro.

Potero tsambani mawu atsopano a 6 ndi mafunso a 6. Monga Cadastre 2014, ndiko kutanthauzira kumagwirizana ndi zomwe zikuchitika kale. Mayiko ena omwe agonjetsa mipata ya pulayimale adzalandira zina mwazimenezi, chifukwa kukhazikika kwawo ndi kufunika kwawo kumafuna kale chinthu china pamsika wawo; izi zidzawonekera mwa ena omwe angapulumutse njira yowonjezereka ya mgwirizanowu. Ena, chifukwa ali ndi zosowa zofunika, adzayesera kudzaza ngongole ya ma Cadastre 2014.

1. Zomwe zili bwino

Mutuwu ndi wokalamba kwambiri, kuti Borges amautenga kuchokera ku gwero lochokera ku 1658:

Mu Ufumu umenewo, Art of Cartography inapeza Zokwanira kotero kuti mapu a Pulezidenti mmodzi adatenga Mzinda wonse, ndi mapu a Ufumu, Province lonse. M'kupita kwanthawi, Mapu osadziwikawo sanakhutire ndipo Maphunziro a Mapupala a Cartographers anakweza Mapu a Ufumu, womwe unali waukulu wa Ufumuwo komanso wogwirizana nawo.

Zopanda Pang'ono pa Phunziro la Zojambulajambula, Mibadwo Yotsatirayo inamvetsa kuti Mapu awa analibe ntchito ndipo popanda Chikhulupiliro adapereka kwa Kuwonjezeka kwa dzuwa ndi Winters. Kumapululu a Kumadzulo kwawonongeka Mapu Mipululu, yokhala ndi Zinyama ndi Opempha; m'dziko lonse lapansi mulibe china chilichonse cha Maphunziro a Geographical.

Zakhala zikudetsa nkhaŵa makamaka makamaka pamene zikuyiwalika kuti ndikofunikira kuti gawo lonse liri ndi chidziwitso choyenera, kusiyana ndi kukhala ndi chidutswa chimodzi chokha. Pogwiritsa ntchito njira zamakono zamakono, mawu awa akufotokoza kuti nkhaniyi idzakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi zaka zotsatira za 20; makamaka kumene kufalikira kwa gawoli kwadutsa kale ndipo zomwe zimakhudza zokhazokha kuti zikhale zolondola.

2. Zinthu zofotokozera za Ufulu, Zopinga ndi Udindo

Uku ndiko kusinthika kwa zomwe kale zinakonzedwa mu 2014 Cadastre, ndizosiyana kuti mmalo mwa kukhala malo okhaokha omwe ali ndi katundu, akhoza kukhala zinthu ndi zitsanzo zawo. Chitsanzo chopita patsogolo ndi Register ya Regime yomwe mayiko ena ali nawo kale; Ndimaumirira kuti, kupatula kukhala mgwirizano pakati pa zigawo, zimayambitsa kugwiritsa ntchito njira zolembera kwa zinthu izi zomwe zimatsimikizira mbiri yawo, kulondola, kupemphera kwa wokondwerera komanso momwe angagwiritsire ntchito pa qualification.

Kotero kuti phirilo ankafika njira ndege chikudutsa amatsatira chomwe icho chiri; m'dera koposa lamulo anthu, koma ndi kusiyana kuti overlaps pa zigawo zambiri zokhudza malamulo payekha, ali ndi mbiri kuti ndi lamulo kuti munamutcha mwini amene ndi ulamuliro umene ukugwira ntchito zothandiza tsiku masamu ake okhudza malo ( zitatu-dimensional) ndipo ingangosinthidwa kupyolera mukugulitsa.

3. Kugwiritsa ntchito 3D

Izi ndi zosaoneka. Pakalipano, mbali zitatuzi zakhala zikuyimira, makamaka zolemba. N'zotheka kufika pakhomo kumalo osasinthasintha podziwa malo ake apamwamba, malo osangalatsa, nambala ya nsanja, mlingo ndi nambala ya nyumbayo.

Maonekedwe a Twins Achimake ndi SmartCities akutsogolera njira zowonongeka pa mapulogalamu ogwiritsira ntchito katundu (Cadastre Indoors). Chabwino, kuposa chiwonetsero chimenecho, Cadastre 2034 imati iwo akhoza kuyendetsedwa; amatanthauza, kugwiritsa ntchito njira zolembera kuti zolemba zawo zisakhudze komanso kuchotsa, koma zokhudzana ndi kusintha kwa moyo; iwo amabadwa, geometry yawo imagwidwa, imakhala yojambulidwa, imayamba kugwira ntchito ndi zochitika za tsiku ndi tsiku za umunthu, zimasinthasintha, ndipo zimafa.

Izi zidzaphatikizapo kasamalidwe mphamvu 3D kukhazikitsidwa kwa njira zatsopano zambiri adani, leveraging njira tsopano kulibe mitambo mfundo koma ndi mbali kuthandiza kuzindikira zinthu ndi zitsanzo chosavuta zomangamanga ndi zitsanzo digito mtunda.

4. Kusintha kwa nthawi yeniyeni

Malingana ngati ochita masewerawa akuphatikizidwa kukhala mbuye wa nyumbayi, kusiyana komwe kungakhale kofanana sikungakhale kofunikira. Mwachitsanzo, banki iyenera kutenga ngongole yobwera ngongole popanda mlembi monga mkhalapakati; Zonsezi, ndi wogwiritsa ntchito pulogalamuyi asanayambe kugwiritsa ntchito mgwirizano ndi nzika, yemwe amavomereza chilolezocho pa malo anu. Pomwepo, boma lakale lidzatha kulemba wolemba milandu yemwe ali mkati mwakutsegula pa batani, kuvomereza kulembetsa, mpaka atatopa ndi kupempha malayisensi chifukwa chala chake, amaika pamsewu ndikupereka ntchito. ku bungwe lopatsidwa mphamvu ku banki. Lingaliro lomwelo likugwiranso ntchito kwa ochita masewera omwe tsopano akulowetsa muchithupi, monga woyang'anira wamatawuni, woyang'anitsa, woyang'anira, mamatala, ndi zina zotero. Malinga ngati ochita masewerawa akuphatikizidwa, zosinthidwazo zidzakhala mu nthawi yeniyeni ndipo mpikisano udzakhala ntchito zabwino kwambiri.

Ndiyeno, cadastre idzasinthidwa ndi anthu, pokhapokha pamene akupanga malonda.

Izi zimawoneka ngati zopenga, koma ndi zomwe zimachitika ndi mabanki. Pambuyo, banki inapereka khadi (ja, monga matikiti amanyamula matikiti), ndipo kunali koyenera kuti apite ku banki kuti atenge ndalama, ndiye kuti ndalamazo zigule, ndipo ngati tikanakhala ndi zambiri zomwe tingapite kukaika banki kapena mkaka pansi pa kama. Lero inu mutsegula akaunti ya banki, ndipo akukupatsani khadi la debit ndi neno lachinsinsi kuti muzigwiritsa ntchito pa intaneti; simukubweranso ku banki, koma mu kampani; Akaunti yanu imasinthidwa nthawi yeniyeni pamene mumagula malonda aliwonse, pa intaneti kapena mutumiza kwa anthu ena kuchokera pafoni yanu mukakhala pagalimoto.

Momwe zikuwonekera pamenepo, kuti wogwiritsa ntchito alowe muakaunti yake ya National Property Registry, ndikuwona malo omwe ali nawo, ngati akufuna kubweza ngongole atha kuwongolera mwachindunji ndi banki, ngati akufuna kuigulitsa akhoza kuichita mwachindunji, ngati akufuna samalani laisensi yomanga kapena chilolezo chogwirira ntchito 'monga zimachitika kale kubanki !. Monga «Uber», izi sizingayimitsidwe ndi akuluakulu amakono a mbiri yakale ya cadaster, ngakhale mabungwe a notarial. Mwachidule kufunika kwa msika; kufikira momwe machitidwewo amakhazikidwira, chitetezo ndi kukwaniritsidwa kwa chidziwitso kumalimbitsidwa; Mitundu yamabizinesi osokoneza idzaphatikizidwa ndi mayankho omangidwa nzika kuti ikhale patsogolo.

Mwa njirayi, njira zomwe tsopano zikugwiritsira ntchito padera zimatha kusintha, monga msika wogulitsa nyumba (malonda ndi malonda) kumene mipangidwe ya B2B monga AirBnb ikupha njira yowonongeka ndi kuwonetsa kwa dziko lonse kudzasungidwa ndi wogwiritsa ntchito yomaliza; kufa pamsewu wothandizira nyumba, gweta yemwe amapanga mgwirizano, wophunzira yemwe amapanga kuphunzira zachuma, kampani yomwe imatsimikizira inshuwalansi ndi pamwamba pa boma lonse lomwe likulipira msonkho.

Komanso zimachitika kuti machitidwe a kulembetsa katundu adzakhala ogwirizana, ndi mbiri za "katundu zilipo makokedwe msika okha," imeneyi imagwira ntchito zinthu monga chuma payekha (galimoto), nzeru katundu, chuma malonda (makampani, magawo) pansi ndi pazikhala kufanana ' malonda ogulitsa ». Kwa ichi, mateknoloji monga BlockChain ndi nzeru zopangidwira ziyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu zanzeru, pamaganizo a mapasa a digito omwe ali ndi thupi lenileni ndi cryptocurrency ofanana, kufikira momwe kutetezedwa kumatsimikiziridwa mu registry kumene boma lilibenso kandulo.

Ndipo, cadastre-registry idzasinthidwa mu nthawi yeniyeni monga momwe zikuchitikira kale m'madera ena a moyo wa tsiku ndi tsiku.

Ndilinso funso la «kusintha kwa anthu mwachangu kuti Cadastral-Registry Registry ikwaniritse chosowa chachikulu padziko lapansi». Ichi ndichifukwa chake funso: Kodi Cadastre ya Conquional yakonzeka kukumana ndi mtengo, nthawi komanso kuthamangitsa kufunika kwa 70% ya anthu omwe alibe ufulu wa chuma? Ndipo sitikunena za kuzindikira madera m'zaka za 50, koma munthawi zakale za 6; ngakhale zili choncho tiyenera kusiya magwiritsidwe azomwe akuchitika pakacadral - kulembetsa, poyang'ana zomwe zikuwonjezera phindu pa Land Administration.

Ife kunyezimira nkhani kugwirizana ndi mfundo imeneyi ndiyo kufunika lonse pali kulembetsa anthu amene alibe chizindikiritso anazindikira mwa dongosolo mkulu, minda zimene mayina ndi ubale wa ufulu kuti anthu amenewa pa dziko lino Izi, mosatchulidwa kuti muzolembedwera kale pali zochitika zoopsa zakale. Kuthetsa vutoli m'zaka zotsatira za 20 kumatanthauza kuganiziranso njira zowonongeka zomwe zimalola kuchepetsa nthawi, ndalama komanso kuchuluka kwa anthu.

5. Cadastre yapadziko lonse ndi yosagwirizana

Zomwezo. Kukhazikitsidwa komwe kumalimbikitsa ndi msika, ndi chilengedwe chonse chozindikiritsa. Ndipo kwa dumpster mndandanda wa ma chiwerengero cha 30 omwe amasintha nthawi iliyonse pomwe malowa ali ndi nkhalango.

6. Mphamvu yosamalira zachilengedwe

Izi zikutanthawuza mapu a zinthu zosaoneka, monga malo omwe chilengedwe chawo chili ndi mayiko onse, malo osungiramo matumba m'madzi.

Mafunso a maudindo oyenera a m'tsogolo a Cadastre

Ndi Cadastre 2034 imayambitsanso chidwi cha dziko lonse lapansi, momwe zingakhalire kuti Catastro amalowererapo, ndipo ngati ziri choncho, zikanakhala zowonetsera mapulaneti atsopano kuti azitha kuyang'anira zokhudzana ndi chidziwitso cha dziko lonse lapansi. Mafunso awa ndi awa:

1. Malo akugwira Kodi Cadastre idzagwira nawo ntchito yolembetsa mfundoyi?
2. Chitetezo cha chakudya Kodi padzakhalanso chidwi choyanjana ndi zinthu zomwe zili m'deralo makhalidwe awo ndi chiyanjano ndi umunthu pa ntchito, kupeza ndi kupezeka kwa ufulu wa chakudya?
3. Kusintha kwa nyengo Kodi padzakhalanso chidwi pa kulembedwa kwa ufulu ndi zifukwa zoopsya zomwe zikugwirizana ndi kusintha kwa nyengo?
4. Khamu la Cadastre. Kodi ndi zotani zomwe sitingathe kuzichita mu collaastoral cadastre?
5. Ma cadastre obiriwira Kumanja kumene kuli malire?
6. Global cadastre. Kodi ndi zofunikira zotani zomwe zidzafunike ku Cadastre yapadziko lonse?


Chifaniziro 2019 - Hanoi

Chodabwitsa cha cadastre chili ngati Uber. Ma geometers ayenera kukhala nawo, chifukwa zidzachitika kapena popanda ife.

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