Ndili LiDAR deta - kodi tsopano?

Mu nkhani zosangalatsa lofalitsidwa posachedwapa Davide Mckittrick, pamene iye analankhula za tanthauzo la zotsogozana njira wokhudzana ndi ntchito ndi LIDAR GIS ndi kunena za Global Mapper monga thandizo chida mu processing wa deta analandira.

Nditawerenga nkhaniyo Ine dawunilodi Global Mapper kusewera pozungulira, ndipo ine ndiyenera kuvomereza kuti amakhala kufunika chida tinakumana ndi kuti anali yabwino zitsanzo digito mtunda kuchokera owona xyz malemba. Lero, pamene aliyense choyenera kwambiri angakwanitse kwambiri kuwona china LiDAR, osati zoipa tione zinthu kuganizira pamene ntchito ndi izi ndi poyamba kutchula zomwe Global Mapper bwino. Kuti ndikutsindika, wandisiya ndikudabwa ndi zomwe ndakhala ndikuyesera; ndi nkhope yatsopano, pulogalamuyi imatsimikizira kuti kufotokozera zolemba zowonjezereka ndi kuziwonetsa pamasomphenya oyamba.

Tsiku lina, patebulo la Geofumadas, ndikutha kuona pamaso pa Don H -Mmodzi wa alangizi anga- kuwunika kosasokoneza m'maso mwake pazopereka zomwe zimaperekedwa ndi wokopa ma drone; inali ntchito yosinthira deta ya cadastral; Ndili ndi chisoni chachikulu ndinayenera kuyitsitsa pamtambo ndikukumbutsani kuti m'maiko ambiri omwe akutukuka mulibe zinthu zochepa zofunikira kuti matekinoloje akhale okhazikika; ngakhale kumapeto timakwaniritsa mgwirizano wazomwe zingatheke munjira yogwira ntchito. Kusokonekera kwa njira imeneyi zaka zingapo zapitazo kunabweretsa kuthekera kwakukulu m'maboma ena a United States, tsopano asamukira kumayiko ena a Spain, omwe angalowe ndi chidwi chofuna "kugwedezeka" pakugwiritsa ntchito ukadaulo watsopano , pogwira deta koma osadziwa chochita nazo.

Ngati tikulingalira mtengo amafuna kugwiritsa ntchito LiDAR mu ntchito, tiona kuti ndi wofunika, n'kuona kumatanthauza poyamba pa zosonkhanitsira deta chachikulu (kulankhula za 'Point Mtambo Collection' zenizeni); ngakhale kuzindikira kuti ntchito yake imatipatsa zotsatira zothandiza ndi kupulumutsa kwakukulu kwa nthawi. Zogwiritsidwa bwino, LiDAR deta imatithandiza kuti tizindikire dziko mosiyana kwambiri ndi zomwe tapindula pogwiritsa ntchito mapu oyambirira. Tsopano mukhoza kupeza masomphenya enieni pogwiritsa ntchito maonekedwe a 3D komanso mungathe kuyanjana ndi deta yomwe njira zatsopano zowonetsera zimakhazikitsidwa.

Kodi LiDAR ndi chiyani?

Davide ananena mosapita m'mbali kuti: "Dongosolo la LiDAR sizithumwa koma zopangira"Chimene chimakhazikitsa lingaliro loyamba lachinsinsi, mmalingaliro athu, kuti timvetse phunzirolo. Ndipotu, kupeza deta ndizowonjezera zomwe zingatilolere, titagwiritsidwa ntchito bwino, kupeza zitsanzo zosiyanasiyana zitatu.

Koma, kuti tiwoneke bwino tifunikira kubwerera ndikumbukira za maziko ndi zizindikiro za LiDAR data. LiDAR (kutchulidwa kwa Kuunika ndi Kuunika Kwambiri) ndivotologalamu ya 3D. Fayilo iliyonse kapena deta ya LiDAR kawirikawiri ili ndi mamiliyoni, kapena mabiliyoni a mfundo, zomwe zimagawidwa mozungulira komanso mwachangu. Kuyanjana kwa kusiyana pakati pawo kumadalira momwe deta inapezera.

Deta ya LiDAR yomwe ilipo pagulu yasonkhanitsidwa, makamaka pogwiritsa ntchito chipangizo chamagetsi pogwiritsa ntchito makina opatsirana pogwiritsa ntchito laser ndi mapulogalamu othandizira, mogwirizana ndi kugwiritsa ntchito malo enieni komanso kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendedwe kabwino. Pa mfundo iliyonse, chiwerengero cha x, y, z chimachokera pa kusiyana kwa nthawi yowerengeka pakati pa kufalitsa ndi kulandira kwa laser pulse.

Ndege yomwe imathamanga pang'onopang'ono idzapangitsa mtambo wa malo kukhala wocheperapo kusiyana ndi wina akuuluka mofulumira kumtunda wapamwamba. Malinga des kachipangizo kuti amagwiritsa ndege kapena drone, ndi momwe ntchito deta, akhoza m'gulu monga zotsatira zina, mtengo wa mtundu, kusinkhasinkha kwambiri ndiponso chiwerengero cha amabwerera pa zimachitika chifukwa choonera ndi kusanthula.

Chimene chingachitike ndi data ya LiDAR

Kukhala bwino deta LiDAR amaloŵamo kusintha zomwe zambiri amakhala 3D chitsanzo, ndiye kulankhula m'badwo wa Intaneti okwera Model (dem) kapena, atakhala / basi m'zigawo za vekitala akutsutsa 3D opangidwa kuchokera dongosolo zojambula mu masanjidwewo ndi Mfundo. Ndi zotheka, ndi kusintha chizindikiro cha kufika mtambo, kupeza tanthauzo kuyimirira mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya pamwamba, kukwezedwa mfundo wachibale pansi, kapena kusuntha kachulukidwe mfundo, mwa zina.

Kusintha ndi Kuwonetsa LiDAR Data

Zowonongeka kuti mafayilo a deta akupezeka ndi mfundo zambiri kuposa zofunikira. Choncho, musanagwiritse ntchito ndondomeko yofikira pamtambo, ndi bwino kufufuza metadata ya wosanjikiza. Chidule cha chiwerengerocho chinapatsidwa chidziwitso chofunikira chokhudza maonekedwe a mtambowo omwe angasonyeze kupanga zokwanira popanga chisankho.

Kupititsa patsogolo khalidwe la LiDAR

Pambuyo pochotsa mfundo zosafunika, sitepe yotsatira ndiyo kuzindikira ndi kubwezeretsanso mfundo zomwe simunayambe kuzilemba. Izi zikutanthauza kuti tiyenera kugwirizana ndi tsikulo. Izi ndi zofunika kwambiri kuti apange chisankho chabwino DEM.
Pano tikuyang'ana ngati tikhoza kupanga njira yowonetsera deta yokwanira ndi kubwezeretsanso zomwezo. Njira ziwiri zooneka ngati zogwiritsidwa ntchito ndizofunika kwambiri kuti zotsatira zipezeke.

Mu Global Mapper kwenikweni amachita bwino kwambiri. Zosavuta, pakukonzekera ndi kusinthasintha. Ndipo ngakhale, ziyenera kukumbukira kuti pochotsa mfundo zomwe zimapangitsa phokoso, pali deta yosankhidwa ngati malo omwe sali othandiza. Kupyolera mu Global Mapper, sizingatheke kuthetsa mfundo zomwe zili kunja kwa malo a polojekiti, komanso zomwe sizikufunika chifukwa cha makhalidwe awo, chifukwa chakuti ntchitoyi ili ndi njira zambiri zosefera.
Tsopano tiyeni tiyankhule za kukonzekera kwa tsikulo. Global Mapper ikuphatikizapo njira zingapo zowonjezera zomwe deta imangosindikizidwa ndi malo osaloledwa poyamba, motero kupewa kupezeka kwapadera kwa data. Izi zikuwonjezera kuchuluka kwa chiwerengero cha mfundo zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito kupanga chigwirizano chachikulu DEM.

Chitsanzo chimene ndagwira ntchito ndi deta isanafike ndi pambuyo pa mphepo yamkuntho; Mosakayikira popanda kukhala ndi wizzard, pulogalamuyi ili pafupi ntchito zogwira ntchito muntchito yopeza, kupeza chitsanzo, fyuluta, yopanga chitsanzo chatsopano.

Kupyolera mu njira zina zowonjezereka zimatha kuzindikira ndi kubwezeretsa nyumba, mitengo ndi zipangizo zothandizira, zomwe ndizo gawo loyambalo pazitsulo.

Kulengedwa kwa Digital Elevation Model

Kuti muyambe kufufuza njira ya 3D, nthawi zambiri, mtambo wa LiDAR uyenera kukhala deta yogwira mtima. Timagwiritsa ntchito njira yotchedwa 'lattice' yomwe phindu limene limagwirizanitsidwa ndi mfundo iliyonse (kawirikawiri kukwera kwapamwamba) imagwiritsidwa ntchito monga maziko opangira chitsanzo cholimba cha 3D. Chitsanzochi chikhoza kuimira malo okhawo (malo a digito) kapena pamwamba pamtunda, monga chivundikiro cha m'nkhalango. Kusiyanitsa pakati pa mawiriwa kumachokera pa kusinthasintha ndi kusankhidwa kwa mfundo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga pamwamba.

Ngati tiwona kuti ambiri a ogwiritsira ntchito LiDAR, cholinga chachikulu ndi chiyambi cha DTM (Digital Terrain Model), Global Mapper amapereka zowonongeka zowonongeka kwa malo, kuphatikizapo kuwerengera; Dulani ndi kudzaza kukhathamiritsa; Mibadwo ya mizere yoyendayenda; Madzi otsika; Ndipo kusanthula mizere ya masomphenya.

Kuchokera Makhalidwe

Kukhoza kupanga kupezeka kwakukulu kwa deta kuchokera ku mtambo wovuta kwambiri kumatanthauzira njira yatsopano yopita ku data yatsopano ya LiDAR. Kuwunika kwa kayendedwe kamene kamangidwe kake kameneko kungayambitse kuwonetsera zojambulazo, zomwe zimayimira ma polygoni atatu; Mitsinje yamagetsi kapena zingwe zopita pansi, zikuyimira ngati mizere itatu; komanso mfundo za mitengo, zomwe zimachokera ku chigawo chimodzi cha mfundo zomwe zimatchedwa kuti mkulu wa zomera. Zida vekitala m'zigawo Global Mapper mulinso mwambo m'zigawo njira yomwe ikhoza kupangidwa 3D mizere ndi polygons kutsatira mndandanda wa malingaliro mbiri amene perpendicular kwa njira predefined. Chida ichi chingagwiritsidwe ntchito popanga chitsanzo cholondola cha magawo atatu aliwonse ozungulira, monga m'mphepete mwa msewu mumsewu.

Mapeto a Davide ndi omveka. Kukhala ndi deta sikuli chirichonse pamene mukugwira ntchito ndi LiDAR; Kukhala ndi chida chomwe mungachigwiritsire ntchito mwachindunji, ndicho chomwe chingagwiritse ntchito kasupewu.

Ndikufuna kudziwa kuti nthawi yomaliza yomwe ndawona ntchitoyi inali mu 2011, Ndiyiyi ya 11. Ndagwira kale ntchito ndi LiDAR koma ndinali kukhumudwa ndikugwiritsa ntchito chuma, ndinasiya kuziwona kuchokera kwa Zotsatira za 13 kumene mphamvu imeneyo idasintha pang'ono. Ndikofunika kuzilandira ndi kuyesa, chifukwa maonekedwe awa a 18 amandiwonetsa imodzi mwa njira zabwino kwambiri zothandizira pulogalamu yotsika mtengo zomwe zimachita pafupi chirichonse chomwe chingayesedwe kuti chigwiritse ntchito deta ya LiDAR.

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