Kuwongolera polojekiti: pakati pa zovuta zomwe woyimilira wa boma samaphunzira m'kalasi

Atamaliza ntchito ndi kumaliza maphunziro awo monga kukonza injini, kukwaniritsidwa kwa chimodzi mwa zolinga zomwe wophunzira aliyense amapanga akamayambitsa maphunziro awo ku yunivesite akuphatikizidwa. Chofunika kwambiri ngati ntchito yomwe ikufikayo ndi yomwe ikuchitika. Udindo wamakono ndi ntchito yomwe chaka ndi chaka imalimbikitsa ophunzira zikwi zambiri kulembetsa m'mayunivesite ndikuyembekeza kuti akadzaliza maphunziro awo adzakhala ndi ntchito yaikulu kumene angapange luso lawo ndi luso lawo; chifukwa chimaphatikizapo phunziro, polojekiti, kayendedwe, zomangamanga ndi kayendetsedwe ka ntchito m'nthambi zotsatirazi: zowonongeka (madzi, madzi ophera madzi, zowononga, kusamalira zonyansa, etc.), msewu (misewu, njira, milatho, ndege, etc.), mavitamini (madamu, madamu, docks, ngalande, etc.), ndi zomangamanga (urbanism, nyumba, nyumba, makoma, tunnel, etc.).

Oyang'anira ntchito yomangamanga ndi imodzi mwa malamulo omwe tsiku ndi tsiku amakopa akatswiri apamwamba kuti azidzipereka pa ntchitoyi, ndipo omwe amayesetsa kulongosola ntchito popanda kukonzekera, amatha kuvutika ndi zotsatira zake ndikuzindikira kuti ku yunivesite sizomwe zidziwitso zoyenera zimaperekedwa kuti zithetse vuto la ukulu.

Kuti ukhale wopambana pokonza ntchito yomanga, uyenera kukhala ndi chidziwitso chochuluka m'madera osiyanasiyana a chidziwitso komanso zaka zambiri, komabe pali luso lina losafunika lomwe silingaphunzire m'kalasi, monga momwe zilili zofanana. ndi nzeru zamaganizo ndi chitukuko cha ubale wawo.

Ntchito ndiyomwe yapangidwa, yokhazikika komanso yapadera, yopangidwa kuti ipangitse zinthu zomwe zimapangitsa kuti phindu likhale lopindulitsa. Mapulojekiti onsewa ndi osiyana ndipo aliyense wa iwo ali ndi zovuta komanso zovuta zomwe zimafuna nzeru ndi nzeru kuti athetse njira yabwino. Komabe, aliyense amene ayamba ntchito yoyang'anira polojekiti ali ndi pulojekiti yake yoyamba, ndipo apa tiyesera kukusonyezani malingaliro a momwe mungachitire nacho mwanjira yabwino.

Malangizo abwino omwe tingapereke kwa akatswiri a zomangamanga omwe akukonzekera kupatsa moyo wawo wapadera kumalo otsogolera polojekiti, ayenera kuti ayambe mwamsanga atangomaliza maphunziro awo kuti apititse patsogolo chidziwitso chawo pankhaniyi ndipo njira yabwino kwambiri ndiyo kuchita digiri ya master, maphunziro apamwamba kapena maphunziro apadera pa nkhaniyi. Project Management Institute (PMI), bungwe lopanda ntchito ndipo limodzi la mayanjano akuluakulu padziko lonse lapansi, ndi mamembala a theka la milioni otsogolera polojekiti m'mayiko oposa 150, ndiyo njira yoyamba yophunzirira za kayendetsedwe ka ntchito kupyolera mu miyezo yake ndi zovomerezeka, zodziwika padziko lonse lapansi, zomwe zimayendetsa dziko lonse lapansi kudzera m'madera ogwirizana. Mukhoza kupeza zambiri zokhudza maumboni a PMI pa webusaiti yawo: www.pmi.org. Zosankha zina padziko lapansi zingathe kuwerengedwera pa webusaitiyi: www.master-maestrias.com. Kumene 44 imasonyeza zomwe mbuye angasankhe poyang'anira ntchito, m'mayiko osiyanasiyana. Zina mwa maphunzirowa zingatengedwe mofulumira komanso pafupifupi, monga momwe ziliri ndi Kalasi Yophunzitsa pa Project Management (PMP).

Pofuna kuyang'anizana ndi polojekiti yoyamba, yomwe nthawi zambiri iyenera kukhala yaing'ono, tikupempha kulingalira mbali zotsatirazi:

  • Bwerezani, phunzirani ndikufufuze bwino bwino komanso mwatsatanetsatane za mutu wa polojekitiyo, muli ndi udindo ngati woyang'anira ndipo muyenera kupanga zisankho zofunikira pa nthawi yonseyi. Kumapeto kwa sitejiyi muyenera kudziwa momwe ntchito yomanga ikugwiritsidwira ntchito komanso momwe mungagwiritsire ntchito mtengo, nthawi ndi khalidwe kuti muzimalize.
  • Konzani zolinga zanu ndi zolinga zanu. Kodi ntchitoyi ikuyembekezeredwa chiyani? Kodi akuyembekezerani kuchokera kwa oyang'anira anu? Kodi phindu la kampani ndi liti?
  • Gwiritsani ntchito nthawi yochuluka kumayambiriro kwa polojekitiyi kuti mukonzekere momwe zinthu zikuchitikira, funsani gulu lanu la ntchito kuti mumve malingaliro pa zomangamanga, ndondomeko, bajeti ndi chidziwitso cha chiopsezo.
  • Dziwani gululo, mvetserani zosowa zawo. Anthu omwe amagwira ntchito mokondwera, amagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zawo zonse kuti athe kugwira ntchito yawo.
  • Ikani timu yanu. Malinga ndi momwe anthu amadziwira kuti ali ndi polojekitiyi, adzakhala ndi zokolola zabwino.
  • Sungani polojekiti. Fotokozani misonkhano yotsatila nthawi yomwe mumayendetsa ntchito, bajeti, anthu, zoopsa ndi mavuto omwe angabwere.
  • Sungani maphwando achidwi kudziwa. Wothandizira omwe ali ndi mphamvu kwambiri omwe sanagwiritsidwe ntchito panthawi yake angathe kupanga zosankha zomwe sangachite kwa otsogolera awo, ndizofunika kuwasunga ndi kuwadziwitsa.
  • Ngati mavuto akuuka kapena ngati ntchito yanu siikwaniritsa zolinga zazikulu, musataye mtima. Ndikofunika kwambiri momwe mungagwirire zinthu. Onaninso zomwe zimayambitsa vutoli, yesetsani ntchito zowonongeka, kuyendetsa zosintha zomwe mukuyenera kuzikonzekera, kuwuza anthu omwe ali ndi chidwi pazochitikazo ndikupitirizabe ndi otsogolera.

Kuwongolera polojekiti kungatanthauzidwe ngati chilango chokonzekera ndi kuyendetsa chuma, motero polojekiti inayake imatha kukwaniritsa zovuta za nthawi, nthawi ndi ndalama zomwe zinayambika pachiyambi. Choncho, kumaphatikizapo kuchita ntchito zosiyanasiyana zomwe zimadya zinthu monga nthawi, ndalama, anthu, zipangizo, mphamvu, kuyankhulana (pakati pa ena) kuti akwaniritse zolinga zomwe zanenedwa kale.

Malingana ndi tanthawuzoli la kutsogolera polojekiti, malo oyenerera a chidziwitso kuti bwana wabwino ayenera kukhala nawo kuti apange bwino ntchito yawo akufotokozedwa ndi kukhazikitsidwa, ndipo ndi awa:

  • Kuphatikizana ndi kukula kwa polojekitiyi: dera ili likufotokozedwa mwachidule m'mawu awiri: ntchito ndi masomphenya. Woyang'anira polojekiti ayenera kukhala omveka bwino za momwe polojekitiyi ikuyendera malinga ndi nthawi ndi nthawi, komanso pamwamba pa zonse, pokhudzana ndi zotsatira. Izi zimaphatikizapo kupititsa patsogolo ndi kukonza ndondomeko komanso kusintha kwa kusintha. Pachifukwa ichi muyenera kudziwa zinthu zenizeni komanso zothandiza kuti ntchitoyi ichitike.
  • Kuwerengera nthawi ndi nthawi zomwe zimakhalapo: Izi zimaphatikizapo kukonzekera ndondomeko yomwe ntchitoyi yikonzedweratu, nthawi yomwe akupha komanso zinthu zomwe zilipo. Woyang'anira polojekiti amayenera kugwiritsa ntchito mapulogalamu ndi mapulogalamu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pokonza ndandanda za ntchito, monga Microsoft Project, Primavera, ndi zina.
  • Kuyendetsa mtengo: Woyang'anira ntchito yabwino ayenera kuyendetsa ndalama zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kale pokonzekera zothandizira (zonse za anthu, zakuthupi, zipangizo ndi akatswiri).
  • Kuyendetsa khalidwe: ndizofunikira kuti zitsatire zochitika zomwe zimaloleza kuwonetsa ubwino wa mankhwala, mautumiki kapena mauthenga ndi kuthetseratu zopinga zonse zomwe zimalepheretsa kukwaniritsa zokhutira. Kuti akwaniritse luso limeneli, bwanayo ayenera kudziwa malamulo omwe akugwiritsidwa ntchito kumalo komwe kumangidwe.
  • Ulamuliro wa anthu: izi zikuphatikizapo kugwira ntchito kwa anthu oyenerera kwambiri, kuyesa momwe amagwirira ntchito ndi kayendetsedwe ka zolimbikitsa; ndi lingaliro la kupanga zosankha zomwe zimapangitsa kuchuluka kwa zokolola ndi kudzipereka kwa omwe akugwira ntchitoyi.
  • Utsogoleri wa Ubale: Mtsogoleri wa polojekiti ndiyenso ali ndi udindo wokonzekera mgwirizano ndi zolankhulirana zomwe zimagwirizana ndi zosowa zazochitikazo. Ndondomekoyi idayenera kulingalira za kufalitsa kwadzidzidzi, kufotokoza kwake komanso kufotokoza kwa chigawo chilichonse cha polojekitiyi, kuyambira pa chiyambi mpaka kumapeto.
  • Kuwopsa kwa ngozi: Gawoli lachidziwitso likugwirizana ndi kuopseza zomwe gulu lotsogolera likhoza kuyang'anizana nazo panthawi iliyonse yowononga, komanso kuyang'anira zoopsazo, kaya kuchepetsa zotsatira zake kapena kusintha zotsatira zawo.

Mwachidule ntchito yoyang'anira ntchito ndi imodzi mwa mavuto aakulu omwe woyimilira wa boma ayenera kuyang'anizana nawo pa moyo wake wapamwamba, ndipo zomwe sizinakonzedwe mokwanira m'kalasi, ndiye kuti akatswiri onse abwino omwe amapanga chisankho chodzipatulira yekha Kwa chilango ichi, muyenera kupanga chisankho chokonzekera nokha ku mbali zonse za chidziwitso chofunikira kuti mukhale woyang'anira bwino ntchito.

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