Zomwe zimasiyana - mitundu ndi mapulogalamu

Mzere wa mizere ndi mzere womwe umalumikizana ndi zolinga za mtengo wofanana. Mu zojambulajambula, zopatula zimabwera pamodzi kuti zisonyeze kutalika kofanana pamlingo wofanana, monga mafunde wamba. Mapu opendekera ndi kalozera woimira maonekedwe apamwamba m'gawo logwiritsa ntchito mizere. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pafupipafupi kuti awonetse kutalika, kupendekera ndi kuya kwa zigwa ndi mapiri. Danga pakati pamitunda iwiri kumbuyo kwa mapu limatchedwa mawonekedwe apakatikati ndikuwonetsa kusiyana pamwamba.

Ndi ArcGIS mutha kuphunzirapo kugwiritsa ntchito bwino magawo ena, motero mapu amatha kulumikizana magawo atatu aliwonse pamapu okhala ndi mapu awiri. Pogwiritsa ntchito mapu oyimitsa kapena opanga masamba, kasitomala amatha kumasulira potsetsereka. Kaya ndi kuya kapena kutalika kwa malo, ma geoform amatha kulankhula za momwe malowa alili. Danga pakati pa awiri opatula pamizere imapatsa makasitomala chidziwitso chofunikira.

Mizere imatha kuwongoka, kuwongoka kapena kuphatikiza zonse ziwiri zomwe sizidutsana. Kutanthauza kutalika komwe kumaonetsedwa ndi omwe amakhala, nthawi zambiri kumakhala kotalika kwa nyanja. Dongosolo lofananirana pakati pa kudzipatula kumawonetsa kukhudzika kwa nthaka yophunzirayo ndipo imatchedwa "interim". M'malo mongodzipatula tibalalike mwamphamvu, akuwonetsa chidwi. Kumbali inayo, ngati zopatikazo zikuwonetsedwa patali, pamakhala kuyankhula kotsika. Mitsinje, mitsinje yamadzi m'chigwachi imawonetsedwa ngati "v" kapena "u" pamapu ajika.

Ma Curve nthawi zambiri amapatsidwa mayina ndi gawo la "iso" lomwe limatanthawuza "zofanana" mu Chigriki, kutengera mtundu wa zomwe zikusintha. Chiyambidwe cha «iso» chitha kuikidwa m'malo ndi «isallo» chomwe chimatsimikizira kuti mzere wa mawonekedwe umalumikizana pomwe kusintha kosinthika kumachitika mwachangu kwambiri munthawi yopatsidwa nthawi. Ngakhale kuti mawuwa amaphatikizika nthawi zambiri, mayina ena amagwiritsidwa ntchito pafupipafupi mu meteorology, komwe kuli kotheka kugwiritsa ntchito mamapu apamwamba okhala ndi zinthu zingapo nthawi iliyonse. Mofananamo, malo omwe adagawanikana koyenera ndi maulalo amawonetsa mawonekedwe ofanana.

Mbiri yakudzipatula

Kugwiritsa ntchito mizere yolumikiza mfundo za mtengo wofanana, kwakhalapo kwanthawi yayitali ngakhale kuti amadziwana ndi mayina osiyanasiyana. Kugwiritsa ntchito koyamba kwa ma contour mizere kudawonetsedwa kuti akuwonetsa kuya kwa msewu wamadzi wa Spaarne pafupi ndi Haarlem ndi munthu wa ku Dutch wotchedwa Pieter Bruinsz mchaka 1584. Ma Isoline omwe amatanthauza kuti kuya kosalekeza kumadziwika kuti "isobats." Mu zaka khumi za 1700, mizere yojambula ndi mapu akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kuti apange mawonekedwe akuya ndi kukula kwa matupi amadzi ndi madera. Edmond Halley mu 1701 amagwiritsa ntchito mizere ya isogonic ndi mitundu yosangalatsa kwambiri. Nicholas Cruquius adagwiritsa ntchito isobatas okhala ndi ma intermediates ofanana ndi 1 fathom kuti amvetsetse ndikutenga bedi lamadzi la Merwede mchaka cha 1727, pomwe Philippe Buache adagwiritsa ntchito nthawi yapakati ya 10 fathoms ya English Channel mu chaka cha 1737. Mu 1746 Domenico Vandelli adagwiritsa ntchito mizere ya mizere yoyeretsa pamwamba, kujambula chitsogozo cha Duchy of Modena ndi Reggio. Mu 1774 adawongolera mayeso a Schiehallion kuti athe kudziwa kukula kwa Earth. Lingaliro la kudzipatula linagwiritsidwa ntchito poyang'ana malo otsetsereka a mapiri ngati umboni. Kuchoka pamenepo, kugwiritsa ntchito mitundu yokhayokha yopanga mapu inali njira wamba. Njira imeneyi idagwiritsidwa ntchito ku 1791 ndi JL Dupain-Treil kuti awongolere kuchokera ku France ndipo mu 1801 Haxo adagwiritsa ntchito makampani awo ku Rocca d'Aufo. Kuyambira pamenepo, pakhala kugwiritsidwa ntchito kodzipatula kwa mapu ndi ntchito zosiyanasiyana.

Mu 1889 Francis Galton adasinthitsa mawu akuti "isogram" monga gwero lamizere yamagama omwe amawonetsa kufanana kapena kufananizira pazinthu zazikuluzikulu kapena zochulukirapo. Mawu oti "isogon", "kudzipine" ndi "isarithm" nthawi zambiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuyimira odziimira pawokha. Mawu akuti "isoclins" amatanthauza mzere womwe umayang'aniridwa limodzi ndi lingaliro lofananira.

Mitundu ndi kugwiritsa ntchito kwa kudzipatula

Ma Isoline akhala akugwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri m'mapu ndi mawonekedwe achidziwitso ndi chidziwitso choyerekeza. Mizere yolondola imatha kukokedwa ngati makonzedwe kapena monga mawonekedwe. Mawonedwe apamwamba ndi mawonekedwe owongolera, kotero kuti wowonera akhoza kuwona kuchokera kumwamba. Mawonedwe azithunzi nthawi zambiri amakhala gawo lomwe limasankhidwa molunjika. Mwachitsanzo, mawonekedwe amalo a dera amatha kujambulidwa ngati makonzedwe a mizere, pomwe kuwonongeka kwa mpweya m'derali kumawoneka ngati mbiri.

Ngati mupeza phompho kwambiri mowongolera, mutha kuwona kuti zokhazokha zimalumikizidwa ndi mawonekedwe a "transporter". Mwa izi, mzere womaliza wa nthawi zina umakhala ndi zilembo zowonetsera zomwe zimawonetsa malo otsika. Kukhazikika kumawonetsedwanso kudzera mu mizere yoyandikana wina ndi mzake ndipo, pafupifupi, samalumikizana kapena kukhazikika.

Mizere yopanga imagwiritsidwa ntchito m'magawo osiyanasiyana, kuwonetsa zambiri za malo. Mulimonsemo, mawu omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kupatula omwe amatha kudzipatula amatha kusintha ndi mtundu wazomwe amalankhula.

Zachilengedwe: Ma Isopleth amagwiritsidwa ntchito kupanga mizere yomwe imawonetsa kusinthika komwe sikungayerekezedwe nthawi imodzi, komabe, ndi chothandizira pazomwe zimasonkhanitsidwa m'dera lalikulu, mwachitsanzo, kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka.

Mofananamo, m'malo a Isoflor, isoplette imagwiritsidwa ntchito kuphatikiza zigawo ndi mitundu yofananira, yomwe imawonetsa zitsanzo za mayendedwe ndi mitundu ya nyama.

Sayansi yachilengedwe: Pali mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya sayansi yachilengedwe. Mamapu akunyentchera ndi ofunikira kuwonetsa madera okhala ndi chidetso chambiri komanso chocheperako, magawo omwe amalola mwayi kuti kuipitsa kufalikira m'derali.

Ma Isoplates amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwonetsera kuwonongeka kwanyengo, pomwe isobelas imagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwonetsa kuchuluka kwa kuipitsidwa kwa concussion m'derali.

Lingaliro la mizere ya mizere lakhala likugwiritsidwa ntchito pobzala ndi kupangira manyowa, omwe amadziwika kuti amachepetsa kufalikira kwa dothi mpaka malo achilendo m'maderawo, m'mphepete mwa njira zamadzi kapena matupi ena zamadzi

Sayansi Yokhudza Chikhalidwe: mizere yopingidwa imagwiritsidwa ntchito pafupipafupi m'magulu achikhalidwe, kuwonetsa mitundu kapena kuwonetsa kufufuza kwazosintha m'gawo linalake. Mayina amtundu wa mawonekedwe amasintha ndi mtundu wa data yomwe imagwirira ntchito. Mwachitsanzo, pazachuma, maupangiri amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuyimira malo okwera omwe amatha kusintha gawo, lofanana ndi isodapane yomwe imalankhula za mtengo woyenda, isotim imatanthawuza mtengo wa mayendedwe kuchokera kochokera pazinthu zopanda pake, mwachitsanzo. Zolankhula zokhazokha zokhudzana ndikuwonjezera kuchuluka kwa mabizinesi osankhidwa mwanjira

Ziwerengero: Pakayezetsa, kuyerekezera kumagwiritsidwa ntchito kuti mupeze mayendedwe limodzi ndi kuyerekeza kukula kwa kuthekera, kotchedwa isodensity lines kapena isodensanes.

Nyengo: Ma Isoline amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri mu meteorology. Zomwe zimapezedwa kuchokera kumalo owonera nyengo ndi ma satelayidi am'mlengalenga, zimathandizira kupanga mapu am'madzi othinana, zomwe zimawonetsa nyengo nyengo ngati mpweya, mphamvu ya chibayo nthawi yayitali. Ma Isotherms ndi isobars amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'malo osiyanasiyana okwanira kuwonetsa mawonekedwe osiyanasiyana a thermodynamic omwe amachititsa nyengo nyengo.

Phunziro lotentha: Ndi mtundu wa kudzipatula womwe umagwirizanitsa mfundozo ndi kutentha komweko, kotchedwa isotherms ndi madera omwe amalumikizana ndi ma radiation ofanana ndi dzuwa otchedwa dzuwahel amatchedwa isohel. Ma Isoline, ofanana ndi kutentha kwapakati pachaka amatchedwa isogeotherms ndipo zigawo zomwe zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi kutentha pang'ono kwa dzinja kapena zofanana zimatchedwa isochemicals, pomwe kutentha kwapakati kwa chilimwe kumatchedwa isothere.

Phunziro la Wind: Mu meteorology, mzere wa contour womwe umalumikizana ndi chidziwitso cha liwiro la kamphepo kawirikawiri umadziwika kuti isotach. Isogon imawonetsa kuwinduka kwamphamvu

Mvula ndi chinyezi: Mawu angapo amagwiritsidwa ntchito kupatula malo omwe amawonetsa malo kapena malo okhala ndi mvula komanso matope omwe ali ndi matope.

  • Isoyet kapena Isoyeta: onetsani mvula yakwanu
  • Isochalaz: ndi mizere yomwe imawonetsa madera omwe kukubwerezedwanso kwamvumbi.
  • Isobront: Ndiwongolero omwe amawonetsa madera omwe adakwaniritsa kuchitapo kanthu pa nthawi yomweyo.
  • Isoneph chiwonetsero cha mtambo
  • Isohume: ndi mizere yomwe imagwirizanitsa magawo ndi kutsatira pafupipafupi
  • Isodrostherm: Iwonetsa madera omwe ali ndi mame okhazikika kapena kuchuluka.
  • Isopectic: akuwonetsa malo omwe ali ndi masiku ogawanitsa ayezi, pomwe isotac imatanthauzira masiku obwerera.

Kupanikizika kwa barometric: Mu nyengo ya meteorology, kafukufuku wokhudzana ndi mpweya ndikofunikira kuti tiziganizira zamtsogolo. Kulemera kwa barometric kumatsika mpaka kukwera kwamadzi mukamawonetsedwa pamzere. Isobara ndi mzere womwe umagwirizanitsa zigawo ndi kulemera kwanyengo kosalekeza. Ma Isoallobars ndiwongolera wokhala ndi kusintha kwakanthawi kwakanthawi. Ma eyeallobars, motero, amatha kudzipatula mu ma ketoallobars ndi ma anallobars, omwe akuwonetsa kuchepa kwa kuwonjezeka kwa kusintha kwamphamvu padera.

Thermodynamics ndi engineering: Ngakhale magawo amomwewa nthawi zina amakhala ndi mzere wowongolera, amapeza momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito pojambula zojambula ndi zidziwitso, magawo azinthu wamba zomwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito m'maphunzirowa ndi:

  • Isochor imayimira voliyumu yosalekeza
  • Isoclines amagwiritsidwa ntchito mosiyanasiyana
  • Isodose amatanthauza kusungidwa kwa gawo limodzi lofanana ndi ma radiation
  • Isophote ndikuwunikira kosalekeza

Matsenga: mizere yolumikizidwa ndi yothandiza kwambiri posinkhasinkha gawo lokongola lapadziko lapansi. Thandizani pakuwopa kukopa komanso kutsika kwa maginito.

Mizere wa Isogonic kapena isogonic amawonetsa mizere ya kuchepa kokongola kosalekeza. Mzere womwe ukusonyeza kukana kwa zero ukutchedwa mzere wa Agonic. Mtundu wa kudzipatula womwe umaphatikiza njira zonsezi, komanso mphamvu yowoneka nthawi zonse umatchedwa mzere wa isodynamic. Mzere wa isoclinic umabweretsa pamodzi madongosolo onse azigawo okhala ndi kabowo komwe kamawoneka kokongola, pomwe mzere wa aclinic umabweretsa pamodzi madera onse okhala ndi dives wokongola. Chingwe cha isophoric chimapeza njira zonsezo limodzi ndi mitundu yowonjezereka ya pachaka yowoneka bwino.

Maphunziro a malo: Ntchito yodziwika bwino yodziyimira payokha - ma contours, ndikuyimira mawonekedwe amtunda ndi kuya kwa dera. Mizere iyi imagwiritsidwa ntchito pamapu apamwamba kuwonetsa bwino kutalika, ndi bathymetric kuwonetsa kuya. Mamapu apamtunda kapena a bathymetric angagwiritsidwe ntchito kuwonetsa dera laling'ono kapena zigawo monga malo akuluakulu. Malo ofanana pakati pa mizere ya contour, yotchedwa yapakatikati akuwonetsa kukula kapena kuya pakati pa ziwirizi.

Mukamalankhula za gawo lomwe lili ndi mizere yopingasa, mizere yapafupi imawonetsa kutalika kapena ngodya, pomwe mizere yakutali imalankhula zosafunikira. Malo ozungulira otsekera mkati amawonetsa mphamvu, pomwe akunja akuwonetsa kutsika. Mzere wozama kwambiri pa mapu opendekera umaonetsa kuti malowo atha kukhala ndi zipsinjo kapena zipsera, pamizere yotchedwa "hachures" akuwonetsedwa kuchokera mkati mozungulira.

Geography ndi Oceanography: Mamapu apansi amagwiritsidwa ntchito pofufuza zamtundu wothandiza, zochitika zakuthupi ndi zachuma zomwe zikuwonetsedwa padziko lapansi. Isopach ndi mizere ya mizere yomwe imalunjika komanso yolimba yofanana ndi magawo a chilengedwe.

Kuphatikiza apo, mu kayendedwe ka m'nyanja, madera am'madzi amtunda ndi ofanana ndi mizere yotchedwa isopicnas, ndipo isohalins amalumikiza malo omwe ali ndi mchere wofanana wapamadzi. Isobathytherms imayang'ana kutentha komweko panyanja.

Electrostatics: ma electrostatics pamlengalenga nthawi zambiri amawonetsedwa ndi mapu asopotential. Majika omwe amalumikiza mfundozo ndi mphamvu yamagetsi yosatha amatchedwa isopotential kapena equipotential line.

Makhalidwe amizere ya mizere

Mamapu a contour sikuti amangoyimira kukwera, kapena chitsogozo chokwera kapena kuya kwa madera, koma mawonekedwe apaderadera amalola kumvetsetsa kodabwitsa kwamalo omwe akutchulidwa. Nawa maudindo apamwamba omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pakupanga mapu:

  • Mtundu wa mzere: Imatha kudumphidwa, mwamphamvu kapena kuthamanga. Chingwe cholowetseka kapena chothamanga chimagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri pakakhala chidziwitso pamunsi cholimba chomwe chitha kuwonetsedwa ndi mzere wolimba.
  • Makulidwe amizere: Zimatengera kuti mzerewo wakoka kapena mwamphamvu bwanji. Mamapu apansi nthawi zambiri amakokedwa ndi mizere yamitundu yosiyanasiyana kuti awonetse mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya manambala kapena mitundu patali.
  • Mtundu wa mzere: Mtundu wamtunduwu wamtambo umasinthasintha kuzitsogolera kuti uzizindikire kuchokera kumunsi kolowera. Shading ya mzere imagwiritsidwanso ntchito ngati njira ina yosinthira manambala.
  • Kuponderezedwa manambala: Ndikofunikira pamapu onse opezeka. Nthawi zambiri imapangidwa pafupi ndi mzere kapena ikhoza kuwonekera mu mzere wotsogolera. Mtengo wa manambala umathandizira kusiyanitsa malo otsetsereka.

Zida Zamapu Aapa

Mamapu achizolowezi sichinthu chokhacho chopangira mapu ojambulidwa kapena masamba. Ngakhale ndizofunikira, ndikupita patsogolo kwatsopano, mamapu tsopano ali m'gulu lapamwamba kwambiri. Pali zida zingapo, zogwiritsidwa ntchito mosiyanasiyana komanso mapulogalamu omwe amapezeka kuti athandizidwe ndi izi. Mamapu awa adzakhala olondola kwambiri, opanga mwachangu kwambiri, osinthika bwino ndipo mutha kuwatumizanso kwa anzanu ndi anzanu! Kenako, amatchulidwa gawo la zida izi ndi kufotokoza mwachidule

Maps Google

Google Maps ndiosunga moyo padziko lonse lapansi. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito pofufuza mzindawu, komanso pazinthu zina. Ili ndi "mawonedwe" angapo opezeka, mwachitsanzo: traffic, satellite, topography, mseu, etc. Kukhazikitsa "Landscape» wosanjikiza kuchokera pazosankha zomwe zingakupatseni mawonekedwe apamwamba (okhala ndi mizere).

Gaia, ArcGIS, Backcountry Navigator (Ntchito Zosiyanasiyana)

Monga mapulogalamu ena ambiri osunthika onse a Android ndi iOS, makasitomala a iPhone amatha kugwiritsa ntchito Gaia GPS. Imapatsa makasitomala mamapu a topographic limodzi ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana. Izi zitha kukhala zaulere kapena kulipidwa kutengera ndi zomwe zatulutsidwa. Njira zogwiritsira ntchito njira sizogwiritsidwa ntchito kokha kuti mupeze data zapamwamba, komanso ndizothandiza kwambiri. Ntchito za ArcGIS ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ESRI ingagwiritsidwe ntchito kupangira mapu.

Kalitola

Simungathe kusewera ndi luso lililonse pama foni am'manja, ndipo awa ndi malo omwe malo ogwirira ntchito ndi ma PC ndiwo ngwazi. Pali magawo a pa intaneti komanso zosintha zomwe mungathe kusintha kuti zikuthandizeni kumaliza ntchito yanu yotsatira. Captopo ndi chida chotsogolera pulogalamu chomwe chimakulolani kuti musindikize mamapu ojambulidwa mwapompo. Kuphatikiza apo, zimakupatsani mwayi woti muwatumize / kuwasunthira ku zida zanu za GPS kapena mafoni am'manja. Kuphatikiza apo, amathandizira makonda kapena mamapu ndikupereka kwa makasitomala osiyanasiyana.

Mytopo

Itha kuwoneka ngati othandizira. Zili ngati Caltopo (wotchulidwa pamwambapa), komabe, imangoyang'ana ku Canada ndi United States (tikukhulupirira kuti nawonso adzazungulira mayiko osiyanasiyana!). Amakhala ndi mamapu atsatanetsatane, kuphatikiza mamapu apamwamba, zithunzi za satelayiti ndi mamapu otseguka otsata boma lililonse la US. UU. Mamapu apamwamba kwambiri, omwe mumatha kuwawona pa intaneti popanda mtengo kapena kuwatumizira ngati mawonekedwe oyambira pamtengo wotsika.

Mutha kulembetsa Maphunziro a ArcGIS Live pa Edunbox yothandizidwa ndi 24 / 7 ndi moyo.


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