The Kusanache Scale

Izi ndi chidwi nkhani m'magazini a Wellausen Regis magazini MundoGEO, zomwe zimatikumbutsa za kusabvomerezeka kwa mawu amenewa a Catastro2014 omwe adakambidwa ndi FIG zaka makumi awiri zapitazo, makamaka ponena za kusinthira malo ojambula zithunzi.

Maganizo Pamalo kusamvana m'malo ndi mawonedwe okalamba.

Lingaliro lonse - ubale pakati pa dongosolo ndi kuyeza kukula m'munda wake weniweni - ndi mbali ya DNA anthu kuyambira navigations kwambiri propitiate ndi dimensioning la mapu kuchokera 1.500. Ochirimika mu chibadidwe "zolakwa mawonekedwe"Zaumisiri mfundo kupanga kufotokoza, aliyense lonse, tiyenera kuganizira zolakwa yotsalira pakati pa zomera ndi nthaka, mu tsiku mmaudindo ndondomeko ntchito mapepala.
Mu Brazil, ndi Register Zowona Cartográfica (PEC), umene ndi losavuta mochedwa popularization wa Watsimikiza 89.817 / 1984 mwachindunji aerophotogrammetry analogi amakhazikitsa mitundu itatu quality, ndi mtengo, wotchedwa Maphunziro C (ndilo nthawi zonse), zolakwa yotsalira ndi 1,0 millimeters wa lonse lapansi. Mofananamo, "limatanthauza" zomera, DNA athu kumatipangitsa kuti zolakwa kukumbukira ndi intuitively organic vekitala purosesa kuika kuwerengetsera onse mu malire a cholakwika mwa munda. Mwachitsanzo, ngati ife kuyeza ndi sikelo gawo athandizira mamita zikwi chomera 1: 10.000, tiyenera kudziwa kuti m'munda pakati 990 ndi 1.010 adzapeza meters.

kuchepa kwa sikelo ya
1864 lonse: mwatsatanetsatane za mbewu gulu la katundu mu Ufumu wa Brazil.

N'zosangalatsa kumva Scale mu Intaneti World

choonadi chachikulu chimene ife timachita zambiri za ntchito imeneyi pa mapu malo amodzi pepala zikutikhudza kapena sikelo yake yeniyeni ya mankhwala kusindikizidwa mapeto, ndiye palibe wina anayeza ndi mamba pa iwo. Kodi chofunika ndi monga khalidwe limene zikusonyeza ndi / kapena chikalata ndi ziphunzitso zathu ndi maganizo. Kupotoza mudziwe okhudza malo ndi katundu komaliza kale ntchito ndi chifuniro akupitirizabe yadigito. Mu njira iyi, mfundo zonse - amene kwenikweni Geo-yofotokozedwapo ku Cartesian ntchito dongosolo - nthawizonse mawunikidwe, anatilola momasuka zosiyanasiyana ndi mawonekedwe lonse ndi kusankha absolutism masamu a mbali iliyonse n'zosangalatsa kumva osnap nyese kapena ofanana lamulo - chinachake Sitingayerekeze zaka 500. Choncho, palibe kulakwa chosatha pa molondola anatipatsa kapena bata mamangidwe chikhazikitso cha zolakwa likutipatsa, kapena pamene timawerenga kapena pamene ife kupanga. Yekha zobisika erro tiyenera kuda nkhawa ndi ndi kobwereza zipatso njira zambiri okhudza malo ntchito, vekitala (CAD, GIS) kapena masanjidwewo (Images) ali, koposa awa si nkhani zina zofananira kwa "mphulupulu likutipatsa".

Pamalo kusamvana

Mawu akuti Pamalo kusamvana limaoneka zina "mwaubwino" odzipereka kwa mafano Kanema, monga zojambula, radiometric, wosakhalitsa, etc., amene anali zinachitika mu 90 oyambirira umboni ife cartographic lolondola mphamvu limachokera ku digito videography - mankhwala pamwamba m'mbuyomo zithunzi mkulu-kusamvana.
Pamalo kusamvana limanenedwa pano monga yolondola georeferencing wa fano, ndiye kusiyana pamalo (ndondomeko) chilichonse digito mphamvu wachibale malo ake woona pansi, zambiri osamusiya kulankhula, pa turnoff ndi -pattern ya kusiyana pakati pa mfundo zothandizira zogwiritsidwa ntchito, mu fano kapena malo. Kukonzekera kwachinsinsi kumagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi kuphweka komweku kuti mudziwe zambiri za vector. Pa kafukufuku digito Mwachitsanzo, chigamulocho Pamalo wa chomaliza mankhwala adzakhala muyezo kupatuka kusiyana pakati pa ndondomeko ya zinthu, nawerenga (CAD, mwachitsanzo) mapulogalamu ndipo kenako anayeza m'munda (ndi GPS Mwachitsanzo ). Ngati mukufuna kuti mlengi ndi zowona kuti palibe kwambiri adziwitse okwerera sitima 1 njira m'tsogolo, pamene ili, kuti ali chigamulocho Pamalo ayenera mwachindunji kutenga kafukufuku. Izi, zidzakhalanso mfulu kusankha njira yowonongeka molingana ndi sayansi yogwiritsidwa ntchito, zambiri zidzakhala kapena zokhazo zikhale ndi udindo wa khalidwe lapadera.
Pamene anamaliza, chigamulocho Pamalo angagwiritsidwe ntchito ngati otetezeka chizindikiro sanjira khalidwe okhudza malo nkhani pa TV digito, chofunika kwambiri chifukwa chosankha malire ndi kuthekera ntchito zawo. Komanso, pokhala kobwereza zipatso njira chizindikiro, chigamulocho Pamalo ndi umunthu kwa mankhwala ndi nkhani udindo luso ankapha ake.
Izi zimathandiza kuti kulembetsa ya Zam'katimu: Maudindo zaumisiri (luso) ndi wotetezedwa mwa kusintha ndi ntchito za lachitatu maphwando. Pa nthawi iliyonse, ndi kudwala Pamalo kusamvana akhoza kutsimikizika m'munda ndi kuyeza chitsanzo malo akalumikidzidwa amawamasulira kapena zinthu. Ndi nthawi ife kale zimatulutsa zosiyanasiyana, wobala malonda mkulu-kusamvana zithunzi ndi mtengo wotsika, mungachite onse orthorectified ndi Olumikiza Rada zimachititsa chilumbachi Mission (SRTM) kapena mwaukadauloZida Spaceborne matenthedwe umuna ndi Poganizira Radiometer / Global Intaneti okwera Model (Aster / Gdem ) georreferenciarlas chokwanira zokwanira kusandutsa iwo mu odalirika zinasokoneza makompyuta cartographic njira, akhoza m'malo kapena yothandiza mtengo ndi wosakwiya trabajaos munda, chofunika kwambiri pa ntchito, ogwira ntchito zomangamanga.

ofunsira

Chitsanzo cha kufunika kwake ndi kugwiritsa ntchito chikhoza kuwonetsedwa mu chiwerengerocho. Iwo anachita, nkhani ya georeferencing katundu kumidzi (10.267 / 01 lamulo), kusiyana mu miyeso vertex amayang'anira "P", akamagwira kudya malo amodzi njira (GPS L1 / L2), chatsalira, ndipo mwachindunji miyeso pa chithunzi chokweza, chabwino. Ilili chithunzi WolrdView2 wa 2010, anali georeferenced ndi chifukwa cha Pamalo mamita kusamvana 1,5, kapena aliyense wa kanjedza wake mwina osiyanasiyana kuposa mita ndi theka la malo leni, ndiwo malire panopa amavomerezedwa Incra mukutengeka kwa mfundo. Monga taonera, kusiyana konse kuli kosavuta kulondola. Anatengera Pamalo kusamvana 1,5 2,5 ndi mamita, motero, amalola kufala kwa ntchito abwino kachipangizo kutali kuchepetsa ndalama ndi nthawi kudziwa ndondomeko ya mfundo osati monumentados ndi malire zachilengedwe kuonekera pamwamba. Professional georeferencing mafano osiyana ndi chimodzimodzi Pamalo kusamvana powerengera ntchito kuwerenga Malire chomwecho, choncho katswiri chachiwiri mosavuta onani ndondomeko ya woyambayo. Mwini mwiniwake wapambana, yemwe amapereka mtengo wotsika, akatswiri amapindula, omwe ali ndi mtengo wotsika ndi phindu lomwelo; ndipo dziko likugonjetsa, lomwe limachepetsa nthawi ndi chitukuko ndi chizindikiritso cha mamiliyoni a katundu.

kuchepa kwa sikelo ya
Georeferencing katundu kumidzi: vertex "P" pamodzi pakhomo, kuyeza ndi GPS L1 / L2 (mwachindunji) ndi mwachindunji pa fano WorldView 2 (mwachindunji). Chithunzichi chimakhala ndi masikweya a 0,5 mamita (kuyang'anitsitsa ng'ombe mwachindunji) ndipo inali georeferenced kuti ikwaniritse kusintha kwa mamita 1,5.

kusiyana mtheradi (mamita)
BVC P 0658 - P3 = 0,91
BVP P 0657 - P2 = 0,43
BVC P 0656 - P1 = 0,55

Ponena za dziko lonse lapansi, sikutheka kuti iye amasiya kukhala protagonist wa ziyeneretso zamakono zojambulajambula zithunzi ndi kukhala womaliza othandizira. Zili ngati Google Earth, kumene ilipo pansipa, ndilolunjika, ngati iwe "Pita", ndi chiyani chomwe chiri chofunika? Kodi tikufuna kudziwa chiyani, nthawi iliyonse yomwe tipeze fomu, yang'anani gawo kapena tithandizane, ndipo ndondomeko yeniyeni ya mafano anu, kuti tidziwe zomwe tingachite ndi chidziwitso chochotsedwa. Pakadali pano, lingaliro lanu ndi ndondomeko yanu zidzakhalabe m'makona a malingaliro athu ndi zolemba zathu. Ulemu wolemekezeka ku chinthu chofunikira kwa zaka 500, kuti pakati pa zofunikira zambiri zomwe zinabweretsedwa kwa makolo athu ndi kutithandiza kumanga dziko labwino limene tikusangalala nalo tsopano.

Yankho limodzi ku "Ocaso de la Escala"

  1. chidwi kwambiri Nkhani kupenda zofunikira za lonse pa dziko ino digito yolinganizika wopandamalire. Moona, ine kuona bwino kwambiri, akhoza sucribirlo koma, mu lingaliro langa, ine sindikuganiza kuti lonse ayenera kupatula pamene wobala likutipatsa aliyense, cartographic ndi planimetric mudziwe chifukwa, ngakhale mankhwala ngakhale zinthu zawo ndi digito, nthawi zonse, posapita nthawi, mwanjira ina thupi kapena digito kachiwiri, adzakhala chitukuko kuti zakukhudzani, ndipo ndi pamene muyenera kutsatira izi mfundo kulakwitsa, kuyamikira molondola, etc.

    Ah! Egeomates kusangalala zosangalatsa kuti ndikumasulireni ndemanga ndi, chabwino, izo si kuwawa avomereze, pomwe?

Siyani yankho

Anu email sati lofalitsidwa.

Tsambali likugwiritsa ntchito Akismet kuchepetsa spam. Phunzirani momwe deta yanu ikufotokozera.