Digital Twin - Filosofi pakusintha kwatsopano kwa digito

Hafu ya omwe adawerenga nkhaniyi adabadwa ndiukadaulo m'manja, ozolowera kusinthidwa kwa digito ngati chowonadi. Mu theka lina ndife omwe tidawona momwe nthawi yamakompyuta idachokera popanda kupempha chilolezo; kumenya khomo ndi kusintha zomwe tidachita kuti zikhale mabuku, mapepala kapena matayimidwe apakompyuta oyamba omwe sangayankhe konse pazithunzithunzi za alphanumeric ndi zithunzi za mzere. Zomwe pulogalamu ya BIM yoyang'ana kwambiri ikuchita pakadali pano, ndikupanga nthawi yeniyeni, yolumikizidwa ndi malo otsogola, kuyankha njira zophatikizidwa ndi mtundu wa bizinesi ndi maofesi omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuchokera pama foni am'manja, ndi umboni wa momwe ntchito yamakampaniyi idakwanitsira kutanthauzira Zosowa za ogwiritsa ntchito

Zina mwa kusintha kwa digito

PC - CAD - PLM - Intaneti - GIS - imelo - Wiki - http - GPS

Zatsopano zilizonse zinali ndi omutsatira, omwe amatsatira mtundu wina amasintha mafakitale osiyanasiyana. PC inali chifanizo chomwe chidasintha kasamalidwe ka zolembedwa zakuthupi, CAD idatumiza magome ojambulawo ku wineries ndi zikwizikwi zomwe sizikukwanira mu zojambulira, imelo idakhala yofikira digito yolankhulira mwanjira; onsewa adatsata miyeso ndi kuvomerezedwa padziko lonse lapansi; osachepera kuchokera kwa woganiza. Kusintha kumeneko kwa kusintha kwa digito komwe kunayang'ana pa kuwonjezera phindu ku chidziwitso cha malo ndi ma alphanumeric, zomwe zidakulitsa mabizinesi ambiri amakono. Mtundu womwe masinthidwewa amayendera anali kulumikizana kwapadziko lonse lapansi; ndiye kuti, protocol ya http yomwe sitinathe kuchotsa lero. Njira zatsopanozi zidatenga mwayi pazidziwitso, momwe ziyenera kulumikizana ndikuzisintha kukhala zikhalidwe zatsopano zomwe tikuwona lero monga Uber, Airbnb, Udemy, Netflix.

Koma lero, tili pakhomo la chisinthiko chatsopano cha digito, chomwe chidzaipitsa zonsezi.

Mawu atsopano:

Chain block - 4iR - IoT - Digital Twin - Big Data - AI - VR

Ngakhale mawu atsopano akuwoneka ngati ma fashoni a hashtag, sitingakane kuti kusintha kwachinayi kwa mafakitale kuli pakhomo, kutengera matupi awo machitidwe osiyanasiyana. Intaneti ya mwambowu imalonjeza kuti ikhale yambiri; kugwiritsa ntchito zonse zomwe zapezedwa pakadali pano, koma kuswa paradigms zomwe siziri pamsika womwe sugwirizananso ndi makompyuta ndi mafoni; Imalumikizitsa zochitika za anthu m'malo awo.

Palibe malo amodzi omwe angatsimikizire momwe mawonekedwe atsopano adzakhalire, ngakhale liwu la atsogoleri ofunikira mafakitale amatidziwitsa, ngati titengera malingaliro okhwima komanso kuzindikira kuti ndife okhwima. Masomphenya, mipata ndi mwayi wosintha kwatsopano, ali ndi mwayi kwa omwe akuyembekeza kugulitsa lero. Maboma, m'maso ochepa a atsogoleri awo, nthawi zambiri amawona zomwe bizinesi kapena kusankhidwa kwaudindo wawo kungaimire munthawi yochepa, koma m'kupita kwanthawi ndi ogwiritsa ntchito ambiri, amachita chidwi ndi zosowa zawo omwe ali ndi zaposachedwa mawu.

Ndipo ngakhale gawo latsopanoli likulonjeza malamulo abwinoko okhala, kukhazikitsidwa kwaulere kokhala ndiokha, kuteteza zachilengedwe, miyezo yochokera pakugwirizana; Palibe amene angatsimikizire kuti ochita masewera monga aboma ndi ophunzira adzakwaniritsa udindo wawo munthawi yoyenera. Ayi palibe amene anganenere momwe zidzakhalire; Timangodziwa zomwe zichitike.

Digital Twin - Kodi TCP / IP yatsopano?

Ndipo monga tikudziwa kuti zidzachitika mwanjira yoti mwina sitingathe kuwona kusintha pang'onopang'ono, tifunika kukhala okonzekera kusinthaku. Tikudziwa kuti panthawiyi zinthu zanzeru komanso zogwirizana sizingalephereke kwa iwo omwe akumvetsetsa zamsika wolumikizidwa padziko lonse lapansi pomwe mtengo wowonjezerawu suwonekera pamalonda amtundu wokha komanso chifukwa cha wogwiritsa ntchito kwambiri. mu mtundu wa ntchito. Mosakayikira, mfundozo zidzagwira ntchito yawo yabwino kwambiri kuti zitsimikizire kuti pakati pa kupezeka kwa malonda ndi zofuna za ogwiritsa ntchito kumapeto.

A Digital Twin amalakalaka kudziyika okha mu malingaliro a kusinthika kwadijiti iyi.

Kodi protocol watsopanoyu akufuna chiyani?

Kuti http / TCIP ikhale njira yolankhulirana masiku ano, yomwe ikugwirabe ntchito masiku ano chisanachitike tekinoloje ndi anthu, ikuyenera kudutsa mu njira yolamulira, kukonzanso komanso demokalase / wankhanza kuti wogwiritsa ntchito wamba osadziwika. Mbali iyi, wogwiritsa ntchito sanadziwe adilesi ya IP, sikofunikanso kulemba www, ndipo makina osakira adasinthanso kufunika kolemba http. Komabe, ngakhale kuti makampaniwo amafunsa za okalamba omwe sangathe kuchita izi, akadali ngwazi yemwe adasokoneza ma paradigms apadziko lonse lapansi.

Koma protocol yatsopanoyo imapitirira kulumikiza makompyuta ndi mafoni okha. Ntchito zamtambo zomwe zilipo, m'malo mokusunga masamba ndi deta, ndi gawo limodzi la moyo wa nzika, maboma ndi mabizinesi. Chimodzi mwa zifukwa zomwe zimapangitsa kuti imfa ya protocol yoyambayo, idakhazikitsidwa pa ma adilesi a IP, popeza tsopano ndikofunikira kulumikiza zinthu zakale zomwe zimachokera ku makina ochapira omwe amafunika kutumiza uthenga womwe watha kale kupota zovala, kumankhwala a mlatho Kuwunikira zenizeni kuyenera kukudziwitsani kuti mwatopa bwanji komanso kuti mukufunikira kukonza. Izi ndi, mwanjira yosazindikira, zomwe timatcha intaneti ya zinthu; komwe protocol yatsopano iyenera kuyankha.

Protocol yatsopano, ngati ikufuna kukhala yokhazikika, iyenera kulumikizana kuposa zambiri zenizeni zenizeni. Kukula, kuyenera kuphatikiza malo omwe alipo ndi atsopano, komanso zogwirizanirana ndi chilengedwe ndi ntchito zomwe zimaperekedwa muntchito zachuma, zachuma komanso zachilengedwe.

Kuchokera pamakampani, mulingo watsopano uyenera kufanana kwambiri ndi zojambulajambula pazinthu zakuthupi; monga chosindikizira, nyumba, nyumba, mlatho. Koma kuphatikiza pamafanizo ake, akuyembekezeka kuwonjezera phindu pantchito; kotero kuti imalola kupanga zisankho zanzeru chifukwa chake zotsatira zabwino.

Kuchokera pakuwona dziko, protocol yatsopano iyenera athe kupanga zachilengedwe zamitundu yambiri yolumikizidwa; monga chuma chonse cha dziko, kuti athe kumasula mtengo wambiri mwakugwiritsa ntchito deta imeneyi pothandiza anthu.

Kuchokera pamachitidwe opangira, ndikofunikira kuti protocol yatsopano ikhale yofanizira kusintha kwa moyo; yosavuta kuzomwe zimachitika pazinthu zonse, zinthu monga mseu, chiwembu, galimoto; zofalitsa monga kugulitsa masheya, lingaliro labwino, chithunzi cha gannt. Muyezo watsopano uyenera kupangitsa kuti onse abadwe, kukula, kubereka, ndi kufa ... kapena kusandulika.

Mapasa a digito amalakalaka kukhala protocol yatsopanoyo.

Kodi nzika imayembekezera chiyani pa kusinthidwa kwatsopano kwa Digital.

Zowoneka bwino za momwe zidzakhalire mumikhalidwe yatsopanoyi, sikuti kuganiza za zomwe Hollywood akutiuza, za anthu omwe ali mkati mwa gulu loyendetsedwa ndi osankhika omwe amawongolera zochitika za omwe apulumuka dziko lakale-pambuyo poti sizingatheke kudziwa zenizeni zomwe zakhala zikuchitika cha kukopa; kapena mopambanitsa, malo owoneka bwino pomwe zinthu zonse zimakhala zangwiro kwambiri kotero kuti malingaliro a bizinesi ya anthu adataya.

Koma china chake chiyenera kulingaliridwa zamtsogolo; Osachepera nkhaniyi.

Ngati tikuwona mu kukonzekera kwa ogwiritsa ntchito awiri omwe ali muofesi yakumbuyo kumbuyo, omwe timawatcha maphwando. Phwando lomwe likufunikira kuti liphunzitsidwe bwino kuti lipange zisankho zabwino, komanso nzika yomwe ikufunika kuti ntchito zabwino ziziyenda bwino; kukumbukira kuti gulu lokondwererali lingakhale nzika payokha kapena pagulu lochita zinthu pagulu, pawokha kapena mosakanikirana.

Chifukwa chake timalankhula za mautumiki; Ndine Golgi Alvarez, ndipo ndiyenera kumanga chowonjezera kufikira pansi lachitatu la nyumba yanga; zomwe bambo anga adazipanga mu 1988. Pakadali pano, tiyeni tiiwale mawu, ziganizo kapena mawu omwe amapangitsa chochitika ichi kukhala chodetsa ndipo tidzipulumutse tokha pazosavuta.

Juan Medina amakhala kuti pempholi livomerezedwe munthawi yocheperako, pamtengo wotsika kwambiri, ndikuwonekera kwambiri, kuthamangitsa komanso popanda zosowa zingapo komanso oyimira pakati.

Boma liyenera kukhala ndi chidziwitso chokwanira kuvomereza chisankhochi m'njira yotetezeka, kotero kuti zitheke kuti ndi liti, liti, liti ndipo likupereka fomu: chifukwa ikavomera chisankhochi, iyenera kukhala ndi mawonekedwe omaliza osinthidwa , ndi kufunafuna komwe idaperekedwa. Izi zikugwirizana ndi malingaliro akuti «Kutembenuka kwa magwiridwe aluntha, njira zamakono zomangamanga ndi chuma chadijito zimapereka mwayi wowonjezereka wa moyo wa nzika".

Mtengo womwe deta imatengera pamenepa, sipangokhala ndi mtundu umodzi wokha wowoneka bwino wazonse; M'malo mwake, timalankhula za kukhala ndi mitundu yolumikizidwa malinga ndi cholinga cha olowera ntchito:

  • Nzika yomwe ikusowa yankho (njira),
  • amene amavomereza amafunika lamulo (la chilengedwe),
  • wopanga amayankha kuti apangidwe (Model BIM to be),
  • womanga amayankha zotsatira (mapulani, bajeti, mapulani),
  • ogulitsa omwe amayankha mndandanda wazolowetsa (zofunikira),
  • oyang'anira omwe amayankha zotsatira zomaliza (BIM monga mtundu womangidwa).

Zikuwonekeratu kuti kukhala ndi mitundu yolumikizana kumayenera kusinthanitsa okhawo, kukhala ndi mwayi wokhazikitsa zitsimikiziro kuti pazabwino kwambiri ndi ntchito yodzigwiritsira ntchito yomaliza; kapena osachepera, owonekera komanso osavuta kuyitsika, amachepetsedwa. Mapeto ake, nzika iyenera kukhala ndi chilolezo ndikumanga; pomwe boma livomereza molingana ndi malamulo ake ndikupeza zidziwitso pazomaliza. Chifukwa chake, kulumikizana pakati pa maofesi am'mbuyomu ofesi ndikungokhala pazinthu zitatu izi, zomwe zimawonjezera phindu.

Mwiniwake adachita zomangamanga zomwe amayembekeza, Boma lidatsimikizira kuti ntchitoyi idachitidwa motsatira malamulo komanso popanda kuyesetsa yayikulu kuti tsatanetsatane wake adziwe. Kusiyanako kumangokhala mu cholinga.

Ngakhale kwa wopanga, wopanga ndi othandizira zida zomwe zida zowonjezerazi ndi mbali zina; koma momwemonso maubwenzi awa ayenera kukhala osavuta.

Ngati tikuwona kuchokera m'mafanizo a mitundu, ntchito iyi yomwe tapanga pomanga ikhoza kukhala yofanana ndi njira zofananira: kugulitsa nyumba, nyumba, pempho la ngongole, chilolezo chogwiritsira ntchito bizinesi, kugwiritsa ntchito zachilengedwe, kapena kusinthika za mapulani akumatauni. Zosiyanazo zili m'mbali monga sikelo ndi njira; koma ngati anali ndi mtundu womwewo woyang'anira, ayenera kulumikizana.

Mapasa a digito, akufuna kuti akhale achitsanzo chololeza kulumikiza ndi kuyimira mauthenga osiyanasiyana, pamlingo wosiyana wa malo, mawonekedwe a kanthawi ndi njira.

Kodi tingayembekezere chiyani kuchokera ku Mfundo za Gemini.

Chitsanzo choyambachi ndi mlandu wophweka womwe umayendetsedwa pakati pa nzika ndi boma; koma monga taonera m'ndime zomaliza, ndikofunikira kuti mitundu yosiyanasiyana ilumikizane; apo ayi unyolo udzasokonekera muulalo wofooka kwambiri. Kuti izi zitheke, ndikofunikira kuti kusinthidwa kwa digito kuphatikizire chilengedwe chonse chomangidwa m'njira zambiri, kuti kugwiritsidwa ntchito bwino, ntchito, kukonza, kukonza ndi kutumiza chuma cha dziko ndi nyumba, machitidwe ndi ntchito zake ndizotsimikizika. Ziyenera kubweretsa phindu mdziko lonse, zachuma, malonda ndi chilengedwe.

Pakadali pano, chitsanzo chabwino kwambiri ndi cha ku United Kingdom. Ndi malingaliro ake a Fundamental Gemini Municipalities ndi mapu amsewu; koma tisanayitane abwenzi kuti nthawi zonse azichita zosemphana ndi mafunde komanso chikhalidwe chawo cha nthawi zonse chofuna kuchita zonse mosiyana mwadongosolo. Mpaka lero, miyezo ya Britain (BS) yasintha kwambiri pamitengo yofika padziko lonse lapansi; komwe ntchito zamayendedwe apano monga i3P, ICG, DTTG, UK BIM Alliance ndizabwino.

Chifukwa cha kutsimikiza uku ku United Kingdom, timadabwitsidwa ndi zomwe Digital Framework Working Gulu (DFTG) ikuyambitsa, yomwe imabweretsa mawu ofunikira kuchokera kuboma, ophunzira ndi mafakitale kuti agwirizane pamafotokozedwe ndi ziphunzitso zoyambirira Chitsogozo chofunikira kuti chithandizire kusintha kwa digito.

Ndi purezidenti woyang'anira a Mark Enzer, a DFTG asaina kuyesayesa kochititsa chidwi kukhazikitsa Masanjidwe omwe amapereka chidziwitso chogwira ntchito pazonse zomangidwa, kuphatikiza kusinthana kwa deta. Ntchitoyi, mpaka pano ili ndi ma script awiri:

Mfundo za Gemini:

Izi ndizowongolera ku "kuzindikira" kwamadongosolo azoyang'anira chidziwitso, zomwe zimaphatikizapo mfundo 9 zomwe zimagawanika m'matanthwe atatu motere:

Cholinga: Zabwino pagulu, Kupanga kwamtengo, Masomphenya.

Chidaliro: Chitetezo, Kutseguka, Makhalidwe.

Ntchito: Federation, Machiritso, Chisinthiko.

Njira Yapamsewu.

Ili ndiye pulani yakukhazikitsa njira yoyang'anira chidziwitso, yokhala ndi mitsinje isanu yomwe imasunga ma Gemini m'malo osunthira.

Iliyonse ya mafunde awa ali ndi njira yake yovuta, yokhala ndi zochitika zosiyanasiyana koma ndizofanana; monga akuwonekera pa graph. Mafunde awa ndi:

  • Pezani, yokhala ndi ntchito 8 zotsutsa komanso ntchito ziwiri zosafunikira. Chofunika monga tanthauzo lake ndikofunikira kuti athandize otsogolera.
  • Ulamuliro, yokhala ndi ntchito 5 zotsutsa komanso ntchito ziwiri zosafunikira. Ndilipo pano ndi zotsalira zochepa.
  • Zofala, yokhala ndi ntchito 6 zotsutsa komanso 7 zosafunikira, ndizochulukirapo.
  • Zikupangitsani, yokhala ndi ntchito 4 zotsutsa komanso 6 zosafunikira, ndikuyanjana kwambiri ndi kasamalidwe ka kusintha.
  • Sinthani, Ntchito 7 zovuta komanso 1 zosatsutsa. Ndi pano pomwe njira yake yovuta ndi ulusi wopindulitsa.

Monga momwe mungazindikire pakukula kumeneku, sikuti mukungoganiza za United Kingdom ngati Brexit yanu yakusintha kwa digito, kapena kukoma kwanu poyendetsa mbali ya kumanzere. Ngati mukufuna kulimbikitsa mtundu wa mapasa a digito omwe ali ndi kukula kwa dziko, ndikofunikira kuti mupereke lingaliro lomwe lingagwirizane ndi makampaniwo, makamaka malingana ndi miyezo. Zinthu zotsatirazi zikuonekera pankhaniyi:

  • 1.5 Kugwirizanitsa ndi zoyesayesa zina.

Zolemba za chinthuchi ndizokwanira, kulemekeza kubetcha uku; Miyezo ya ISO, miyezo ya ku Europe (CEN), mayanjano ndi Innovate UK, Kumanga SMART, W3C, BIM UK, DCMS, i3P, DTTG, IETF.

  • 4.3 Kufikira kwadziko lonse.

Apa timalankhula za kuzindikira ndi kuwongolera malo ochezera ndi mapulogalamu, zoyeserera ndi mwayi pamalingaliro apadziko lonse ndi ma synergies. Chosangalatsa, kuti m'malingaliro awo ali nako kuphunzira kwamachitidwe abwino a mayiko omwe akuyesera kale; kuphatikiza kuthekera kophatikiza gulu losinthanitsa chidziwitso padziko lonse lapansi, kuphatikiza Australia, New Zealand, Singapore ndi Canada.

Chikalata chachikazi chotchedwa Gemini Mfundo, kuti akwaniritse mgwirizano wofunikira pakati pa atsogoleri ogulitsa, akhoza kukhala omwe anali "Cadastre 2014» kumapeto kwa zaka za 2012, zomwe zidakhazikitsa magawo a kayendetsedwe ka malo, omwe pambuyo pake a Doe Consensus imagwira ntchito limodzi ndi INSPIRE, LandXML, ILS ndi OGC, idayamba mu 19152 muyezo wa ISO-XNUMX, womwe umadziwika kuti LADM masiku ano.

Pankhaniyi, zidzakhala zosangalatsa kuwona momwe atsogoleri abwino muukadaulo waukadaulo omwe abweretsera mitundu yawo amakwaniritsa mgwirizano; Pankhani yanga, ndizofunikira:

  • Gulu la SIEMENS - Bentley - Microsoft - Topcon, yomwe mwanjira ina imakhala ikuwonetsa pafupifupi gawo lonse mu gawo la Geo-Engineering; kulanda, kutengera, kupanga, kugwira ntchito ndi kuphatikiza.
  • Gulu la HEXAGON - yomwe ili ndi mayankho angapo ofanana ndi gawo lowoneka bwino la gawo logawidwa muulimi, katundu, ndege, kuteteza, chitetezo ndi nzeru, migodi, zoyendera ndi boma.
  • Gulu la Trimble - omwe amakhalanso ofanana ndi awiri apitawa, omwe ali ndi maubwino ambiri oyika ndi kuyanjana ndi anthu ena, monga ESRI.
  • Gulu la AutoDesk - ESRI kuti pakuyesetsa kwaposachedwa yesetsani kuwonjezera misika yomwe misika yake ndi yofunika kwambiri.
  • Komanso osewera ena, omwe ali ndi zoyambira zawo, zitsanzo ndi misika; ndi omwe akuyenera kufotokozera kuti atenga nawo mbali ndi kugwirizana. Mwachitsanzo, General Electric, Amazon kapena IRS.

Chifukwa chake, monga nthawi yomwe bambo anga adanditengera ku rodeo kuti ndikawone momwe abala amphongo amalamulira ng'ombe, kuchokera kukhola lathu timangowona zomwe tikuwona. Koma idzakhaladi mpikisano wabwino, kumene ikukwaniritsa mgwirizano ndi yayikulupo, pomwe kulumikizana kumawonjezera mtengo kuposa malo amsitolo.

Udindo wa BIM ngati Digital Twins

BIM yakhudza kwambiri komanso kupitiliza kwakanthawi kwakanthawi, osati chifukwa chothandiza kuwongolera kwa digito kwa mitundu ya 3D, koma chifukwa ndi njira yomwe anavomerezana ndi atsogoleri otsogola, zomangamanga ndi zomangamanga.

Apanso, wogwiritsa ntchito kumapeto sadziwa zinthu zambiri zomwe zimachitika mseri mwa mfundo; monga wogwiritsa ntchito ArchiCAD yemwe anganene kuti adachita kale asadatchulidwe kuti BIM; zina ndizowona, koma kukula monga njira pamlingo 2 ndi 3 sikupitilira kuyang'anira chidziwitso chosinthika, ndipo cholinga chake ndikuwongolera magwiridwe antchito ndi mayendedwe amoyo osati a zomangamanga komanso zofunikira.

Kenako pamabwera funso. BIM sikokwanira?

Mwinanso kusiyana kwakukulu kuchokera pazomwe Digital Twins amawayika ndikuti kulumikiza zonse sikungolumikizitsa maziko. Kuganiza pazinthu zolumikizana padziko lonse lapansi kumatanthauza kulumikiza machitidwe omwe samakhala ndi mawonekedwe apadziko lapansi. Chifukwa chake, tili mu gawo latsopano lokwezera kuzungulira kwa nkhani, pomwe palibe amene ati adzachotse pepalalo lomwe lakwaniritsa ndikupitilizabe kutsatira njira za BIM, koma china chake chokwera chidzakulitsa kapena kuchiphatikiza.

Tiyeni tiwone zitsanzo:

Pamene Chrit Lemenn adafuna kubweretsa Core Cadastre Domain Model pamlingo woyendetsera dziko, adayenera kupeza malire ndi malangizo a INSPIRE komanso komiti yaukadaulo yokhudza malo. Chifukwa chake, monga icho kapena ayi,

  • Mwakutero kwa INSPIRE, ISO: 19152 ndiye muyezo woyang'anira ka cadastral,
  • Za magulu apamwamba a LADM, ayenera kutsatira miyezo ya OGC TC211.

LADM ndi muyezo wapadera pazidziwitso zamtunda. Chifukwa chake, ngakhale muyezo wa LandInfra muliphatikiza, umasweka ndikuyang'ana kosavuta, chifukwa ndikofunikira kukhala ndi muyeso wa zomangamanga ndi umodzi wamtunda, ndikuwalumikizitsa pamalo omwe kusinthana kwachidziwitso kumawonjezera phindu.

Chifukwa chake, potengera ma Digital Twins, BIM ikhoza kupitilizabe kukhala njira yomwe imayang'anira miyezo yofanizira; Gawo lachiwiri, Ndi zovuta kuzungulira mwatsatanetsatane zomwe kapangidwe ndi zomangamanga zimafunikira. Koma kugwiritsa ntchito ndikuphatikiza kwa gawo lachitatu, kudzapangitsa kuti chizolowezi chosavuta chiphatikizidwe ndi phindu lowonjezerapo osati chifukwa choti chilichonse chizilankhulidwa chilankhulo chimodzi.

Padzakhala zambiri zoti mulankhule; kufunika kwa chidziwitso, kuthyoka kwa zotchinga, chidziwitso chotseguka, magwiridwe antchito, zomangamanga, magwiridwe antchito ...

"Kutembenuka kwa magwiridwe aluntha, njira zamakono zomangamanga ndi chuma chadijito zimapereka mwayi wowonjezereka wa moyo wa nzika"

Yemwe amakwaniritsa magulu ochita izi kumbuyo kwa malingaliro awa, kumvetsetsa kufunikira kwa zabwino za anthu, chuma, anthu ndi chilengedwe ... adzakhala ndi mwayi waukulu.

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