Sinthani zithunzi ku vector

Kwa nthawi yaitali, linanena bungwe Digitizing matebulo anasindikizidwa mapu kuwutsata, ndiye kunabwera sikana, koma ntchito sikuti ntchito mapu scanned koma ena amatembenuka ku chifanizo kapena PDF ndipo alibe mtundu vekitala.

Ndondomeko yomwe ndikuwonetsa ndikugwiritsa ntchito Microstation Descartes, koma zomwezo zikhoza kuchitidwa pulogalamu ina iliyonse: Dongosolo lokhazikika lokhazikika (Pamaso pa CAD Overlay), ArcScan, zobwezedwa GIS (Zida Zamalonda), ndikukumbukira kuti kwa nthawi yaitali nditachita ndi Corel Draw.

1. Chithunzicho

Pali zifukwa zina zomwe zimakhudza kupangitsa kuti vectorization itheke popanda kupweteka kwa mutu. Zina mwa mawonekedwe a fano, png kapena tiff idzakupatsani zotsatira zabwino, pamene jpg sizingatheke; kumakhudzanso kusamvana kuti inkatumizidwa, ngati anatembenuzidwa kuchokera gawo kusindikiza kapena katundu bwinobwino lonse kugwirizana ndi kukula pepala, zazikulu pepala kukula inu mukhoza kuyembekezera bwino kusamvana kapena zinthu osachepera aposa zojambula zosavuta.

mapu akujambulidwa ku vector

Chitsanzo chomwe ndikugwiritsa ntchito ndi 1: mapu a cadastral a 1,000 omwe adatumizidwa kuchokera ku gawo la osindikizira la Microstation, kupita ku pepala la 24 "X36", mujambuzi.

2. Georeference

Mapu ngati awa ndi osavuta kugwiritsira ntchito chifukwa amagwirizana m'mphepete. Ndatenga mfundozo pogwiritsa ntchito lamulo "malo a malo", Ndikulowa keyin chogwirizana mu mawonekedwe "xy = X-coordinate, Y-yolumikiza", Awa ndi madontho a buluu a chithunzi chopansi.

Kenaka ndinayitanitsa chithunzichi, ndikuchiika kunja kwa mfundozo. Kenaka ndayika mfundo zomwezo mosiyana, ndikuyendayenda kudzera mu mizere yobiriwira, nthawi zonse ndikugwiritsa ntchito ukulu wochulukira kuti uwonekere. Ndipo potsiriza pogwiritsa ntchito "edit, warp" kuchokera kwa abwana a raster, ine ndinalembapo mfundo zinayi zolamulira monga momwe zasonyezedwera. Tsopano mukuyenera kuwonetsera kuti muzitha.

mapu akujambulidwa ku vector

Ngakhale Microstation V8i imathandizira kuyitana pdf mafayilo ngati fano ndipo izi zikhoza kukhala georeferenced ndi kale ndondomeko, ndondomeko ndondomeko sizikuthandizani chifukwa zimafuna kuti inu kulemba ufulu. Zidzakhala zofunikira kuziyika, ndikuzisunga ngati chithunzi (batani lamanja, sungani monga...).

3. Vectorization

mapu akujambulidwa ku vectorNdikugwiritsa ntchito Microstation Descartes V8i. Ngakhale izi zimagwira ntchito mofanana ndi matembenuzidwe apitalo.

Gwiritsani ntchito zipangizo zamakono. mapu akujambulidwa ku vectorIzi timachita "zipangizo, raster, edit raster"Ndipo izo zimatiwonetsera ife bar yomwe ili ndi zida zoyenera zogwiritsidwa ntchito pazithunzi.

Tiyeni tichite zochitika pa apulo la 15 kuti tifotokoze zolemba choti muchite:

Sankhani maski. Chojambula choyamba chimalola kupanga masks, malingana ndi zoyenera, pakali pano ine ndigwiritsa ntchito mitundu, posonyeza kuti ndikufuna kuwonjezera lalanje ku chigoba. Muyenera kuyandikira pakati pa mzerewu, ndipo sankhani bokosi kumalo omwe mtunduwo umawoneka wathanzi. Kukonzekera mtundu womwe mukufuna kusonyeza chigobachi, umatha ndi njira "dialog box mask"Kwa ine ndasankha chobiriwira. N'zotheka kupanga masikiti angapo ndikusungiratu kasinthidwe mu format ya .msk

mapu akujambulidwa ku vector

Nthawi yomweyo osankhidwa mumasikiti amasintha ku mtundu womwe umasonyezedwa (wobiriwira). Mutha kuwonjezera mitundu yambiri ku maski, kapena kuwachotsa.

mapu akujambulidwa ku vectorVectorize mabwalo. Tiyeni timange mabwalo omwe amawoneka mu mawerengero a maapulo, chifukwa cha izi timapempha radiyo ndikungokhudza mzere wa magulu onse. Ndinali wophweka kwambiri, ndinagwiritsa ntchito mtundu wa magenta komanso makulidwe okwanira. Kufikira kwazitali za mzere kuyenera kufotokozedwa, izi zimachitidwa poyesa mtunda umene umadutsa m'lifupi mwake mu chithunzicho. Kuti muwone bwino, ndibwino kumulangiza kuchotsa chithunzi chojambulidwa.

Chikhalidwe. Kupewa kupanga zowonjezereka chifukwa cha kupopedwa, chikhalidwe cha normalization chimaperekedwa. Chitsanzo ndi chosakhala chachizolowezi, onani momwe mizere ikukhudzira ndi pixelated.

mapu akujambulidwa ku vector

Malire amtundu ndi chipolopolo. Tsopano ine ndikufuna digitize malire, ngati mwachita padera ndi chigoba kuti asalalikire malire alibe vuto kukonza mfundo topological malire mkati. Pachifukwa ichi ndikuwonjezera mtundu wa lalanje ndi mtundu wakuda ku chigoba, ndiye ndimakhudza makinawo. Chizindikiro ndi chakuti onse adzayikidwa mu mtundu wa chigoba, ndiye kungogwiritsa ntchito njira "sintha mizere"

mapu akujambulidwa ku vector

Zambiri, ndizo. Onani mwatsatanetsatane zikuluzikulu, mfundo akhala anazindikira kukhalabe topological mwangozi mfundo, mfundo akhoza kusungidwa ngati file ofrmato .nod. Mukhoza kusintha mtundu kapena pamene anakhumba msinkhu ndi zimene ndachita kupatukana m'mphepete mwa apulo katundu ngakhale ntchito ndi chigoba limodzi.

Sinthani malemba. Kwa ichi pali zipangizo zina, zomwe zimakulolani kusankha osasinthasintha, osinthasintha, malemba ambiri, pakati pa ena, pogwiritsa ntchito OCR. Kumeneko ndiko kutembenuza (maselo).

mapu akujambulidwa ku vector

mapu akujambulidwa ku vector Zina zomwe mungasankhe. Pomwe mask akugwiritsidwa ntchito, pakati pa ntchito zomwe zingagwiritsidwe ntchito ndi:

4. Sinthani mizere payekha
5. Sinthani dera lonse lopangidwa kukhala chimango
6. Sinthani zinthu zonse zogwirizana pamapu
7. Kupanga mikwingwirima ya mkangano, kumafuna kukhala mu fayilo ya mbewu ya 3D.
8. Pangani Miyendo
9. Pezani zovuta, izi ndizo zingwe zamakina omwe ali ndi zigawo zambiri

Kulondola. Ine kuyeza kuchokera kutsogolo kwa chiwerengero katundu 2, ndipo wandipatsa mamita 28.9611, wapachiyambi unali 29.00, vectorizarlo kuyenda akanakupatsani chimodzimodzi koma pang'onopang'ono, digitizing tebulo zikanakhala poipa. Mu izi mwachindunji ndikofunikira kulingalira zinthu zingapo, monga khalidwe
D ya mawonekedwe, ngati pepala silinayende bwino, kukula kwa mapu, khalidwe la pixelated komanso makamaka georeferencing ya 2 ya positiyi.

Massive Vectorization.

Ngati muli ndi zithunzi ziwiri, kapena mwamsanga mwatheka kuchita zokopa zazikulu, ngakhale kuti izi muyenera kuziganizira:

  • Ngati mapu ali ndi malire okha, mayesero amodzi ayamba kuchitidwa mosavuta.
  • Ngati mapu ali ndi malemba, zoyenera ndikusintha izi, kenako ndi zithunzithunzi zoyeretsa kuchotsa zotsalazo
  • Ngati chindodo mtundu, ndi jambulani yovomerezeka ngati mapu pepala 1: 50,000, mukhoza kuchita mtundu, ndi kupanga masks ndi maina zothandiza (mizere mizere, nyumba, misewu, gululi, etc.) kuti ntchito izo yunifolomu kwa mafano osiyanasiyana.
  • Mukakhala ndi mapepala opitilira, ndi bwino kuwatcha onse awiri, pangani kusintha kosinthika ndi kupukuta ndikukhala ndi mapepala osiyanasiyana omwe asankhidwa.
  • Ndibwino kuti mupitirize kuyang'aniridwa, makamaka m'magawo ndi malo oyandikana nawo mizere.

Yankho limodzi kwa "Sinthani zithunzi ku vector"

  1. Chabwino, ndikuyembekeza zimagwira ntchito ndi 8.5, chifukwa izo zidzakhala zofunikira kwambiri.

Siyani yankho

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