Kugwiritsa ntchito kumayendedwe kwa GIS. Zolemba zotsutsana ndi zoona

Pambuyo powerenga nkhani yomwe ikuyamba pofunsa zomwe alemba a GIS akuyembekezera, ndinadzifunsa kuti ziganizo izi zingakhale zotani chotsani ku maiko athu oyambirira omwe zikhalidwe zawo zingakhale zofanana kapena zosiyana (mwina zosiyana) ndi zanu.

Zowonjezera zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pa phunziroli zinali zonse zopatsidwa ntchito ku GIS zomwe zinafalitsidwa pazinthu zosiyanasiyana zofalitsa. Zopereka zimenezo zogwiridwa ndi 'oyendetsa mutu' sizidaphatikizidwe chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwawo kwa kufalitsa kwawo.

Mawu ogwiritsidwa ntchito anagwiritsidwa ntchito kulemba kufufuza ntchito pa malo atatu otchuka kwambiri ku New Zealand. "GIS, Geography, Location, Space, Geography" ndi mawu ogwiritsidwa ntchito pazinthu izi.

Ndalamazo zikalembetsedwa, ma data adasonkhanitsidwa, akusokoneza malemba ndi 'chinyengo'. Pambuyo pake, mawonekedwe ofunsidwa a malo oyenerera adachotsedwa pazomwe akudziwitsidwa. Zomwe zimachokera ndikusungidwa zinali:

  • Mutu wa ntchitoyi
  • Malonda opangidwa ndi wothandizira kampani
  • Makampani akuluakulu ogulitsa ntchito
  • GIS monga chofunikira chachikulu kapena chachiwiri pa ntchito yofunsidwa
  • Maluso a zaumisiri omwe amafunika pa mapulogalamu
  • Malo a malo ndipo,
  • Misonkho

Timaganiza kuti ndikofunikira kwambiri kuti tisiye apa ndikufotokozera zina kale kuti apereke ziganizo za phunzirolo. Tiyeni tiwone:

  1. 'GIS mafakitale' ndi chipembedzo ndi chisokonezo lingaliro

"Chimodzi mwa zifukwa zomwe ndinapangira phunziroli ndi chifukwa ndinkafuna kukhala ndi njira yophunzitsira dziwani makonzedwe a malonda a GIS ku New Zealand. "analemba Nathan Heazlewood, mlembi wa kabuku zomwe takambirana Ndipo ngakhale mu nkhani yathu "Zowonjezeka zambiri"Timayesera kufotokoza lingaliro, chirichonse chikuwoneka kuti chimasonyeza kuti mawuwo panopa Icho chimabweretsabe kukayikira kwakukulu.

Kumbukirani kuti nkhani ziwiri zimene ndizitenga zimachokera kwa wolemba yemweyo ndi chaka chino, 2017. Ndidzakumbukira, mwa chilolezo chanu, kutchulidwa "kwa moyo" kuti muthe kufufuza chifukwa, monga momwe mungatengere kuwerenga, zonse imagwirizana.

"Zogulitsa za GIS zingakhale zosokoneza. Ndizovuta "ndizimene Heazlewood amayamba polemba"Mafuko akuluakulu a GIS" Ndipo akupitiliza, "Kusokonezeka sikuli bwino." Mfundo yoyamba. Kodi tili ndi chidziwitso cha lingaliro? Ndipo ngati sichoncho, chomwe chiri chotheka kwambiri, tingapeze bwanji mawu omwe tidzatchula dera lino la ntchito ndi kwenikweni tithandizeni onse kumvetsa tanthauzo lake?

Nathan wabwino akulemba mawu omwe timagwiritsa ntchito: 'GIS Industry', 'Space', 'Geomatics', 'Geospatial', 'Location Science', 'Bungwe la Geography' ndipo potsiriza 'liwu lina' ( Chiwonongeko!). Ndi yani mwa iwo zikugwirizana bwino?

Izi sizokambirana pang'ono ngati momwe mungaganizire. Chifukwa cha "chisokonezo" choyamba chidzayamba kukayikira kwakukulu komwe kumagwira ntchito zosiyana zitatu zomwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito: mutu wa ntchito yomwe ikufunika, kuti GIS ndizofunika kapena zoyenera kuchita kuntchito, nanga chigawo chachikulu cha kampani ndi chiyani? wopempha Tiyeni tipitirize

  1. Chisomo chokoma cha maudindo

Zokwanira kutenga chigawo chochepa cha maudindo osiyanasiyana omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito poti "akatswiri a dera" mukuphunzira Heazlewood kuti azindikire momwe mtundu wa "maudindo" ndi "zipembedzo"

Pokhala gawo limodzi kuchoka ku kumiza, mokondwa, timakumbukira nkhani yakuti "mafuko akulu ...". Mwa ichi, Heazlewood akukamba nkhani yogwira ntchito yomwe ndi yofunika kwambiri ndipo kuti, malingaliro athu, imathandiza mwanjira yowunikira kufotokozera zojambulazo zosasangalatsa.Mfundo yachiwiri. Zedi, ndi makadi a bizinesi omwe iwo ayenera kusonyeza malonda abwino omwe, ndipo pofunitsitsa kudzipereka kwathu kudziko mwanjira yabwino, amayamba kupanga kusiyana kwakukulu kwambiri: "wophunzira", "wophunzira" komanso "wamkulu". Kodi wina angatifotokozere momveka bwino kukula kwake ndi malire ake aliyense za maudindo omwe asonyezedwa? Mukudziwa?zimapitirira'amagwira ntchito pakati pa ena a iwo? Funso labwino! Ndikulongosola kuti awonenso tebulo lathunthu lofalitsidwa ndi wolemba komanso tebulo lophatikizidwa adalengedwa ndi iye osati kokha pa kafukufuku amene adachitidwa komanso makamaka pazomwe amadziwa bwino m'deralo.

"Zomwe ndingathe kuganiza ndizoti mu GIS mafakitala pali" mafuko "akuluakulu:

(1) The '... Gists'

(2) The '... Graphers'

(3) 'Oyang'anira'

(4) 'Techies' "

Kupyolera mu chithunzichi chimayesa kutithandiza kumvetsa lingaliro lanu:

Yang'anani tsopano ndi 'malingaliro anu':

"(1) The '... Gists' kwenikweni ndi ena mwa akatswiri akuluakulu ndi ogwiritsa ntchito ma data a GIS omwe amawunika kusanthula kwasayansi (kotero maudindo awo ambiri amatha mu 'GIST'). Zimaphatikizanso (kapena kuphatikizapo) mitundu ina ya osanthula.

(2) The '... Graphers' ndi anthu omwe amayang'ana pawonetsedwe kapena maimidwe a deta, monga ojambula zithunzi ndi 'achibale' awo.

(3) 'Oyesera' ndiwo anthu omwe amasonkhanitsa deta ndikugwiritsa ntchito zipangizo zamakono.

(4) 'Techies' omwe amakhala ngati mawonekedwe pakati pa magulu a GIS ndi zamakono. Kutchula apa kwa oyambitsa GIS ndi anzawo ogwirizana nawo. "

Pambuyo pazimenezi (kumvetsa kwathu) kufotokozera, masomphenya athu onse amakhala omveka, sichoncho? Tiyeni tipite kumbuyo kwathu.

  1. Chachitatu. Zinthu zomwe zimakhudzanso kusanthula

En malo oyamba, Mwanjira yotani, kudzera mu chidziwitso chosavuta, kodi n'zotheka kudziwa ngati GIS ndiyayi kapena ntchito yoyamba wa kampani yopempha?

Izi sizikuwoneka zophweka kuti mudziwe a priori, akulongosola Heazlewood, ndiyeno:

  • Pali mabungwe omwe ngakhale adziwonetsera okha pagulu kupyolera mu fano la zamalonda likuwonekera pa malo enaake, iwo amapereka chithandizo kwa mafakitale amodzi. Momwemonso ndi makampani omwe amagwira ntchito zomangamanga omwe angapereke thandizo kwa mafakitale omwe ali kumalo olankhulana, ntchito ndi zomangamanga.
  • Pali mabungwe omwe angathe 'kulumikiza' m'magulu osiyanasiyana, zomwe zingakhale choncho pa Utumiki wa Zamtundu womwe ungathe kugawidwa pansi pa mutu wa Boma Lalikulu, koma izi zikhoza kukhazikitsidwa mwachitukuko.

Muzochitika zonsezi ndilo ndondomeko ya wolemba, malingana ndi zomwe mwakumana nazo, amene adzapanga zosankha zomwe zikuwoneka bwino.

En malo achiwiri ndi chidwi chonse, ndi luso lanji luso loyenerera pa mapulogalamu omwe atchulidwa muzolemba za ntchito za GIS? Pano, wolemba akuwonjezera pang'ono:

  • Anapewetsedwa kuti aganizire 'mabanja a katundu' ndipo anali ndi mwayi wa mapulogalamuwa a pakompyuta omwe ankafunikira, monga AutoCAD mmalo mwa CAD chabe.
  • Kumbali ina, 'zida zowonjezera' zinawonjezeredwa kuti zisanthulidwe, monga SQL kapena HTML. Izi ziri ndi malingaliro ochuluka. Ndipo zimatithandiza kukhala ndi chiwerengero chabwino cha zomwe msika ukufunayo.
  • Zimamveka kuti zidziwitso zina zimatanthauzira mitundu yambiri ya mapulogalamu. Mwinamwake ndi chikhumbo kufotokozera ndi kugawira gulu losangalatsidwa. Pano ife timatenga chitsanzo cholembedwa ndi wolemba, koma ndithudi ayenera kukhala odziwika mkati mwawo. Chiyeso cha mtundu wa chidziwitso, apa tikupita:

"Ndife kampani yomwe imagwira ntchito ndi ... (palabreo, palabreo, tsopano chinthu chosangalatsa chimadza) a) Tikuyembekeza kumvetsetsa kofunikira html5, css3 ndikumva nazo chinenero cha mbali, b) Kumvetsetsa mfundo izi ndizofunikira: CORS, cdn, xss, kuvomereza maheda, DDD, CQRS, TDD, mpumulo, chochitika Chosaka Misika, omwera boma, microservices soa, mvc, mvvm, IoC, olimba youma y YAGNI. "Titaima, tinayima, tinapitiriza kuti:" Tikugwiritsa ntchito coffeescript, svg, d3, crossfilter, velocityjs, ukukamba, momentjs, bootstrap, zochepa, nodejs, mumameza, redis RabbitMQ, expressjs, zigwiriro, oauth2, passportjs ndi docker... " Tsopano mapeto (bwino iwo akanayamba apa) "c) Ena kudziwa mapupala a mapupa y Magetsi a GIS".

Onani kuti "chidziwitso china mu GIS"Kodi iwo sanafune akatswiri? Zikuwoneka kuti 'luso'Sichikuphatikizapo GIS zambiri ... Tingachite bwino kusiya izo ndikupitiriza.

  • Pa 31% ya malonda sanafunire mapulogalamu enieni (iwo amangonena zinthu monga "ayenera kukhala aphunzitsi mu GIS"). Izi zikuwoneka kuti ndi mbali inayo ya msinkhu. Ndipo ndithu bwino amasonyeza wolemba: "Iwo sangakhoze kukhala molondola ananeneratu machenjezo amenewa ndi chifukwa olemba ntchito anzawo amadzipereka kuti ngati mukudziwa GIS, amadziwa zonse, kapena ngati mabwana sindikudziwa mwachindunji luso zimene akufuna". Funso lochititsa chidwi, chabwino? Momwe mungadziwire?

Chithunzi chosonyeza mapulogalamu a pulogalamu ya mapulogalamu amawongolera malinga ndi nthawi zambiri zomwe zimatchulidwa pazomwe zilizonse za 140 za zitsanzo zomwe zikutsatiridwa:

Ndipo chifukwa cha kufunika kwake, timadzilolera kusonyeza patebulo, khumi (10) omwe amatchulidwa pamwamba:

Chida Ayi
Esri 49
SQL 25
Python 19
Sap 16
.NET 12
HTML 12
JavaScript 12
FME 10
Zooneka Basic 8
AutoCAD 7

En malo achitatu, malipiro. Kumbukirani kuti phunziroli lapangidwa ku New Zealand. Ndalama yake, dola ya New Zealand (NZD), ili ndi kufanana kwa 1 NZD = 0.72 USD (Dola ya America). Kuyenera kuwonjezeredwa kuti, pokhala zosiyana zenizeni mu dziko lililonse, tikhoza kutenga izo ngati deta yolongosola. M'bokosi lowonetsedwa, 'k' ndithudi akufotokoza 'zikwi':

  1. Mfundo yachinayi. Zoona zenizeni ndi Zolemba. Chenjezo loyenera kuwerengedwa

Zikuwoneka kuti zofukufuku zonse zomwe zimaperekedwa pagulu komanso (ndipo mwinamwake ndizofunikira) ziganizo zomwe zingachokere ku izo ziyenera kutsimikiziridwa zovuta za sayansi ndi kutsimikiziridwa zoona. Heazlewood akuwopa mantha ake ndipo akuchenjeza kuti:

  • Khalani maso pamene muzindikira 'malingaliro' ndi 'zosiyana.' Tiyenera kuzindikira awo 'akatswiri' omwe maulosi awo sali ozikidwa umboni zovuta M'malo mwake, iwo ali ndi cholinga chofalitsa mwachidule makampani omwe akuyimira.
  • Khalani maso chifukwa cha 'mavoti a maganizo'. Anthu Kafukufuku wa 'mwaufulu' kaŵirikaŵiri amalephera kupanga woona zitsanzo woimira makampani, zomwe zotsatira kungachititse kuti mfundo zolakwika.

Kutsirizitsa kusinkhasinkha uku potsutsa kuti maphunziro onse a mtundu umenewu achoke mndandanda wawo wa "deta data" (monga momwe amachitira) chifukwa ena akhoza kuchita zofanana Yang'anani kuti n'zotheka kupeza zofanana zomwezo.

  1. Otsatira omvera a phunziro ndi ndondomeko zofunikira

Wolembayo amasonyeza kuti ndi wophunzitsa komanso / kapena wopereka maphunziro kwa ophunzira komanso ophunzira a GIS. Iwo anamuyankha kuti: "Nthawi zambiri sadzi- wa makampani amene ali pafupi kulowa mofanana wonyalanyaza mwayi ntchito ndi maphunziro / maphunziro ayenera kupitiriza kusintha mpata chotenga ntchito." Izi zonse zinali chifukwa china chochitira kafukufuku amene tikukamba.

Kudziwa uku kumene achinyamata amatchula ndizochitika panopa. Pachifukwa ichi, timalongosola ndi kuvomereza ndi wolembayo kufunika kogwira ntchito ndi deta yodalirika yomwe imalola kuti tifike pa zolinga zenizeni ndi zoona.

Ndipo monga wotsogoleredwa aliyense athandizira kukhazikitsa ophunzira onse ndi ophunzira kuti awerenge ntchito yawo musadandaule kwambiri za kudziwa ndi kugwiritsira ntchito zonse amene atchulidwa mu zindikirani ntchito anakopera ndi Posafuna penipeni zipangizo, amene amapangidwa inshuwalansi zambiri ambiri zoŵaŵa. Kenako iye anawonjezera kuti izo zikanakhala musazengereze kugawana ndi wolembedwa ndafunsira: ". Ngati inu mulibe OTCHEDWA luso ONSE, osadandaula" Kuti kuwonjezera amvekere: "Ndamva zina mawu amenewa kuntchito wanga". Chachisanu kuti azisamalidwa kwambiri.

Zotsatira za phunzirolo

Ndipo ife tinafika! Ife tikuwonetsera apa okha omwe amatilola ife ndemanga zowonjezera kenako:

  • Un 53% za zofalitsidwa zosindikizidwa zimatenga GIS monga zowonjezera zofunikira zomwe zafunidwa pa malo, pamene 47% likuyang'ana pa GIS monga chigawo chachikulu cha ntchito yanu.
  • Mabungwe a boma am'deralo amapereka maudindo oposa atatu kuposa mabungwe akuluakulu a boma.
  • 15% ya ntchito mu GIS yokhudzana ndi kayendetsedwe, kayendedwe kapenanso kuwombola.
  • Tsiku lililonse inafalitsa zolemba za ntchito ku GIS ku New Zealand.

Ndemanga zomaliza

Ife tikudziwika kuti chenicheni cha dziko lirilonse ndi chosiyana. Komabe, sitingaleke kudabwa za chilengedwe chathu:

  • Kodi GIS ikufunika ndalama zingati monga zofunikira pazokambirana?
  • Malingana ndi kusiyana kwa ndale za chilengedwe chake, m'madera ati a boma - boma kapena mabungwe apadera ndi ntchito zazikulu kwambiri mu GIS zopangidwa?
  • Kodi ndizinthu ziti zamakampani zomwe zimafuna akatswiri ku GIS?
  • Kodi ntchito zambiri zimapezeka bwanji mu GIS muzofalitsa zosiyanasiyana?

Mafunso omwe tiyenera kuyesetsa kupeza. Kenaka timatsiriza mutuwu ndi funso lomwe tikuyembekeza kuti likhale limodzi mwa mfundo zawonekera:

Kodi mukudziwa zomwe zikuchitika ku GIS ndi maluso omwe ali nawo ku kontinenti kapena kudziko lina?

Yankho limodzi ku "ntchito yoyenerera ya GIS. Zolemba zotsutsana ndi zenizeni "

  1. Nkhani yabwino kwambiri. Kafukufuku wabwino kwambiri ndikuwunika zotsatira ndipo ndikuvomereza kwathunthu zomwe zanenedwa apa. Ndakhala ndikutsutsa mayina a maudindo omwe apemphedwa pa intaneti popeza amabweretsa chisokonezo chochulukirapo kuposa kufotokozera. Lingaliro la Spatial Analysis latayika ndikusinthidwa ndi «Pulogalamu» kapena «Pulogalamu». Cholinga chake ndi kulipira kudziwa GIS koma cholinga chake ndikuti ndife akatswiri pa mapulogalamu ndi kasamalidwe ka ma network. Ndikuganiza kuti ndi nthawi yoti GIS ipatsidwe chiphatso ndi kuyang'aniridwa ndi mabungwe a Geography mayiko akunja.

Siyani yankho

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