Kodi geomatics ayenera kudziwa muyezo LADM dziko makonzedwe

LADM imadziwika ngati muyezo woyang'anira nthaka (Land Administration Domain Model), yomwe inatha kukhala ISO 19152 ku 2012.

Siyo mapulogalamu, koma chitsanzo chachinyengo chomwe chimasonyeza ubale pakati pa anthu ndi dziko lapansi; kuonetsetsa zomwe zimaoneka m'dziko lililonse ndizosiyana; ndi njira yokhala ndi zinthu zina zomwe zili mu 2014 Cadastre zinkaonedwa ngati abastracto. Chimafuna kupeŵa kubwezeretsa ndi kubwezeretsanso ntchito zomwezo pogwiritsa ntchito maziko omwe ali owonjezera ndipo amathandiza mabungwe kuti azilankhulana ndi maofesi ovomerezeka m'mayiko osiyanasiyana.

Podziwa kuti akatswiri ogwira ntchito ndi anthu ogwirizana ndi geomatics ayenera kudziwa kutanthauzira zojambulazo, timachita masewerawa kuti tifotokoze chiyambi cha muyezo umenewu kuyambira nthawi yomwe idakonzedwa ngati CCDM.

Ndizodabwitsa kuti LADM, mwa mbali ya kusuta kwake kosavuta, imanena kuti kayendetsedwe ka nthaka ndi lingaliro losasintha pa nthawi, silinasinthe zaka zikwi:

Izo nthawizonse zimakhala mu chiyanjano chomwe chiri pakati pa munthu ndi dziko lapansi. Kaya chikhalidwe kumene bwinobwino mbiri akutionetsa zofanana: anthu, monga nkhani ya Adamu ndi Hava boma comunero ali anapatsa kusamalira munda wa Edeni, wakuti kukhala mkati, udindo chiyani kumeneko, ndi zoletsedwa kuti musadye kuchokera ku mtengo woletsedwa ndi kulandidwa kwa nthaka ngati simukutsatira.

munda umene tsopano umatchedwa zinthu Kupititsa (BAUnits) ndi chiŵerengero ufulu (RRR) ndi okhudzidwa, yogwirizana ndi anthu (Party) ndi Gwero ndi mbali zosiyanasiyana za chizindikiro cha chilli okhudza malo (Spacial mayunitsi).

LADM

Chowonadi nchakuti monga momwe kayendetsedwe ka kasungidwe ka ufulu pa malo ali patsogolo, pali zovuta zovuta kuti pazigawo za zolembera nthawi zonse zimakhalapo koma podikirira kufotokoza zoimira zawo, pali zifukwa monga:

A angapo omwe ubwenzi 60% - 40% ya chabwino kuti ndi 23 nyumba 4 pansi pa nyumba kuti lilinso ndi ufulu malo awiri magalimoto mu chapansi 1 ndi zoyenera Nyumba zophatikizana ndi anthu onse kuchokera kumalo kupita ku malo olandirira alendo kumtunda uliwonse ndi malo osungirako nyama kumtunda wachisanu ndi chitatu. Mwalamulo ndi zosavuta, choyimira koma kudzifunsa momwe ife chitsanzo m'kaundula 3D, kapena 2.5 D.

Ndi malamulo a LADM amafunidwa, kuti njira yofotokozera mfundo za kayendetsedwe ka ufulu wa nthaka mu zida za IT ndi chimodzimodzi. Chifukwa chakuti bizinesiyo ndi yofanana, imasiyana mochepa ndi njira ndi ndondomeko zomwe zimakhazikika ndi dziko kapena chilango. The pang'ono chizolowezi chogwirira zitsanzo kuvumbitsira kuoneka kuti LADM ndi astral yoweyula kompyuta okha, mwina chifukwa UML mawerengeredwe kwa makalasi ndi mabwenzi Komabe ndi udindo wa yoyeza akufuna mu cadastre 2014: «Kutenga nthawi yaitali".

Choncho, mu chitsanzo cha masewero a geospatial semantics, adayang'ana pa ntchito zazikulu za kayendetsedwe ka nthaka:

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  • Pewani Cholinga - Kugonjera - Ubale Wosinthidwa (P - RRR - RO)
  • ndipo perekani zambiri zokhudza mbiri iyi.

Komanso chitsanzo amafuna atsogolere standardization a kuthamanga sayansi ndi pa dzanja limodzi kupereka (Internet, zinasokoneza makompyuta okhudza malo, zitsanzo yovomerezeka pulogalamuyo lotseguka gwero ndi GIS) ndipo kachiwiri ndi kufunika kwa ntchito kuti popezera mpata njira imeneyi (boma magetsi, chitukuko chokhazikika, zolemba zamagetsi ndi kuphatikizidwa kwa deta ndi machitidwe). Mmodzi mwa ubwino LADM n'lakuti kusinthidwa kuti aliyense dziko, kaya malamulo awo, kulekana nchito ya cadastre ndi kaundula, kapena mtundu wa chida kuti ntchito zokha. Amapereka magulu omvera, ndipo kuchokera apo mukhoza kuchita makalasi enieni a dziko koma pamapeto pake lingaliroli likugwirizana.

Chigonjetso chachikulu cha LADM ali yolumikiza khama maphunziro kudzera njira mkuyu kwa standardization amene analipo kale, monga Linz ndi LandXML la Australia / New Zealand, National System Integrated Dziko la America (pamaso FGDC), magawo za kukhazikitsidwa kwa European Commission of Science ndi Technology (KUKHALA), Komiti ya ISO / TC211 ya OGC, ndipo koposa zonse, kuyendetsa malo omwe akukhalapo. Ndipo mbali yovuta yopanga muyezo ndi kutengera kapena kubwezeretsanso zomwe ena adziwa kale.

Mbiri yaing'ono

La CHITH wobadwa mu 2002, amayesera kuchita khama ndi kuyitanitsa ndi zochitika zatsopano monga momwe zilili ndi maganizo a Inspire ndi IDE omwe amatenga mphamvu pafupi ndi 2003. Choncho njira lalifupi ndi LADM udzadutsa mphindi osiyana yopatulika zokambirana ndipo anatengera Mabaibulo osiyanasiyana kutenga dzina la mzinda umene anali presentnadas, kukhala ISO 19152 2012 la:

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  • Mu April wa 2002 kuthekera kochita chinachake kumaukitsidwa kwa nthawi yoyamba.
  • Mu September wa 2002 mndandanda wa 1 umaperekedwa ku OGC wotchedwa Noordwijk, ndiye ku Delft mu COST Workshop.
  • Mwezi wa March wa 2003 ndi 2 version yotchedwa Paris, chaka chomwecho mu FIG ndipo pa tsiku lino OGC imalengeza LPI
  • Mu September 2003 ikupereka Baibulo la 3 lotchedwa Brno, ku Poland. Patsikuli, zowonjezera zowonjezereka za 3D zawonjezeka. Linaperekedwanso ku European Land Information Service EULIS.
  • Mu 2004 Baibulo la 4 lotchedwa Bamberg, likufotokozedwa pazithunzi za ku Germany ndi Kenya.
  • Mu 2005 ndiwotchedwa 5 yotchedwa Cairo, m'Chigawo cha Egypt. Pomwepo, miyezo imene OGC inagwira kudzera mu Komiti ya ISO / TC 211 yakhala ikuphatikizidwa; Ngakhale komitiyi yakhala ikufalitsa zoposa 50 mfundo zosangalatsa kwambiri kumunda wa geomatic, LADM imatenga kuchokera apa: Geometry ndi Topology). Komanso pa tsiku lino lidzakhala deta ya Inspire's cadastral data.
  • 2006 imapereka ndondomeko ya 6 yotchedwa Moscow, yomwe ndi iyi yomwe tinayankhula ku Geofumadas m'nkhani yakuti «chitsanzo cha cadastre«. Izi zikuphatikizapo Kumanga RRR ndipo Gawoli likufotokozedwa mosiyana pa kalasi yofiirira.

Kuchokera ku 2006 kufika ku 2008 khama limayang'ana pa kuvomerezedwa monga muyezo.

  • Mu October wa 2006, 1.0 Version yafotokozedwa kale ngakhale kuti tsikuli idatchedwa CCDM (Core Cadastral Domain Model).

Ndondomeko yosinthira kukhala ISO yoyendera, kudzera m'misonkhano yosiyana, kukambitsirana ndi kutanthauzira kwazitsamba; Zimatha mu 2012 kupyolera mu PhD ya Chrit Lemmen ku 2012.

Padakali zambiri, mayiko angapo atha kusintha kale, ngakhale zilipo zambiri. Zitatha izi khama standardization wakhala ndondomeko kukhazikitsa ndi ankafika ku chenicheni, amene wapanga maulalo ndi JRC (olowa Center Research wa Commission European) ndi HABITAT UN (Nations Agency United kwa Human midzi) achite ntchito zogwirizana ndi kayendedwe ka madera. Ndi waona zitsanzo zili m'mayiko osiyanasiyana, Tiziganiziranso nkhani ya STDM (Nthawi yokhalira Social Domeni Model) imatengedwa ndi specialization wa LADM, ndi FAO ndi Flossola ndi Honduras ndi SIGIT zinachitika tsopano kuyang'ana kukwera kwa SINAP.

Kufotokozera za Chitsanzo

Ntchitoyi ikusonyeza kuti timayesa kumvetsetsa chiyambi cha LADM pogwiritsa ntchito ndondomeko yowonongeka. Ine ndikuyesera kuti ntchito mitundu ofanana ndi makalasi lachitsanzo, kale ovomerezeka Angalekanitse ponseponse ku chikasu mbali malamulo, munthu wobiriwira, zinthu buluu, pinki ndi chibakuwa zimachititsa chilumbachi mtunda. Ndithudi kugwiritsa ntchito mafano kudzatibweretsera ubale wina ndi mgwirizano koma ndikuumiriza; Tiyenera kuphunzira kumvetsetsa zitsanzo. Mwa kudutsa mbewa pamwamba pa zinthu, tanthauzo lake likuwonetsedwa.

[hsmap dzina = »ladm»]

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Makampani aakulu.

Chiwembu chimayamba ndi mgwirizano pakati pa mabungwe atatu akuluakulu:

  • Chidwi (Nkhani), mu muyezo wotchedwa Party
  • Cholinga cha lamulo, chomwe chikuchitika pambaliyi chikutenga chiganizo chotsatira cha chigawo cha cadastral ndikuchifikitsa ku gawo. Muyeso iyo imatchedwa BAUnit, ndi malo ake opanga geometry.
  • Kulondola, ubale umene umagwirizanitsa munthuyo ndi chinthucho, mu muyezo wotchulidwa monga RRR.

Chitsanzocho chimagwirizanitsa izo kudzera mu gwero. Izi zingakhale zolemba kapena kwenikweni; ndi chenicheni chenicheni. Zina zonse ndizochitika:

  • Osati kokha mwiniwake, koma ndi gulu la oloŵa nyumba, mmodzi wa iwo atamangidwa chifukwa cha moyo,
  • Chiwembucho chili ndi pulani, koma pamapepala ndipo alibe georeference,
  • Kugawidwa kwa malo sikunatsimikizidwe, koma peresenti yokha ya kulondola ... mmodzi wa abale agulitsa kale ufulu wake kwa anthu ena anayi,
  • Gawo ili likugulitsidwa lili ndi telefoni yamakono yotsegula ndi access servidurmbre,
  • Chigawo chimodzi cha chiwembu chikukhudzidwa ndi malo otetezedwa ndi boma lapadera,
  • Mmodzi wa abale ndi wamng'ono, choncho amavomerezedwa mwalamulo ndi amayi ake achiwerewere ...

Kaya mapu alipo kapena ayi, kaya ndi ovomerezeka kapena ayi, malinga ndi ndondomeko, ndizochitikadi. Choncho, a LADM amavomereza kuti zowonazo zimalembedwa mwadongosolo, zomwe zikuwonetsa mkhalidwe ndilamulo.

Wokondwerera (Party)

Onani apa apa "phunziro" lophweka limaperekedwa kwa anthu osiyana omwe akulowerera muzogulitsa. Kotero ife tiri:

ladm - kopi (2)

  • Munthu aliyense
  • Lamulo lalamulo, monga momwe zilili ndi bungwe kapena kampani
  • Kugawidwa kwa anthu, monga nkhani ya gulu lachimwenye, gulu, gulu la anthu osauka, ndi zina zotero.
  • Munthuyo kapena bungwe lomwe limatsimikizira kuti ali ndi ufulu, monga mlandu wa woweruza
  • Munthuyo kapena bungwe lomwe limatsimikizira kubweza ngongole, monga banki kapena ndalama
  • Munthu amene amapanga chikalata choyesa, monga wofufuza.

Ubale wa ufulu (RRR)ladm - kopi (3)

Pano, mu mwambo wa cadastre, unali mtundu wokhazikika. Koma chitsanzocho chikutambasulidwa kotero kuti zikhalidwe zosiyana zosiyana za ubale wa malamulo ndi maudindo oyendetsa angathe kusintha:

  • Ngongole kapena ngongole
  • Zomwe zingakhudzidwe, zomwe zingakhale zoletsedwa, Maudindo ndi maudindo.
  • Ubale wa umwini ndi gwero.

Cholinga cha kulondola

ladm - kopi (4)

Pano pali magulu osiyanasiyana, koma zonse zimakhala mbali ya chinthu chomwe chimatchedwa administrative unit (BAUnit). Onani kuti izi ndi zosiyana ndi chinthucho, kaya tili ndi mapu kapena mapepala kapena ayi.

Ichi ndichifukwa chakuti pali chinthu chomwe chidzapangidwe pang'onopang'ono koma mbali ya BAUnit ndipo poyamba ndizo zochitika "osati georeferenced":

  • Chinthu chosasunthika, ndiko kuti, chomwe chingachotsedwe ku chiwembu, monga momwe zilili kunyumba, telefoni, ndi zina.
  • Chizindikiritso cha malo ogulitsa nyumba
  • Tsamba losatanthauziridwa la geo
  • Adilesi yeniyeni yomwe imatchula nyumba mkati mwa nyumba, ndipo izi zikhoza kuwonjezeka pa nyumba ya nyumba.

Ndiye pali ma BAUnits omwe ali ndi chidziwitso cha malo, pakati pawo akhoza kukhala:

  • Chiwembu chosapangidwira (gawo la chidutswa), chomwe chingakhale mfundo, chigawo cha mfundo ndi malire.
  • Chiwembu chokonzekera, chomwe chingakhale chipangizo, kapena zingapo poyerekeza ndi malo amodzi.

Imodzi mwa ubwino wokwatira chitsanzo cha LADM ndikuti palibe deta ndi yosayenerera, palibe cadastre yabwino kapena yoipa, chenicheni choyimiridwa. Maofesi otsogolera alipo ndipo angathe kusintha molondola kuchokera ku:

  • Otsatira amisonkho a municipalimenti omwe amangokhala malumbiro omwe amapezeka mu Excel.
  • Pambuyo pake akhoza kukhala ndi mgwirizano, ndi cadastre yomweyi ndi yankho labwino koma lovomerezeka.
  • Ndiye mukhoza kukhala ndi ziwembu, koma osati mozama.

Chilichonse chimatsekedwa mu chidziwitso cha malo a chiwembu, ndi zigawo zosiyana zoimira pazifukwa zosavuta "mu chenicheni chenicheni chinthu chimodzi chokha". Ndikofunikanso kuti malamulo aumwini okha asamasonyezedwe, komanso malamulo a boma, monga momwe zilili ndi malo otetezedwa kapena mabungwe apakati omwe akufotokozedwa m'malamulo osiyanasiyana monga chigumula chomwe chimayambitsa zochitika.

ladm - kopiZithunzi za chinthucho.

Iyi ndi mndandanda wa makalasi apadera, omwe amatha kufotokozera mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya maonekedwe a chinthu chomwecho, ndicho chifukwa chake chikugwirizana ndi gwero.

Pano chinthu chofunikira ndi chakuti kuchepa kwayeso ndi mfundo, yomwe ndi udindo wa woyang'anira. Amatsatanetsatane zinthu zosiyanasiyana za 2D ndi 3D.

Pankhani ya miyeso iŵiri, mfundo, ndiye malire mu ubale wa arc-node ndiyeno mawonekedwe otseka geometry. Chinthu chomwecho chiripo kwa 3D ngakhale pano pali vuto lina lomwe liri chinthu cha 3D chosapangidwa ndi nkhope.

Kugwirizana kwa zojambula zazithunzi ndizochokera ku gwero, podziwa kuti padzakhala chidziwitso chomwe chimatanthawuza kulungama kwakukulu komwe sikungakhoze kukonzedwa mu chigawo cha cadastral monga gawo la nkhani.

Pomalizira, LADM ndiyomwe ayenera kudziwika. Ndikumangirira zinthu zomwe zili mu 2014 Cadastre kumene takhala tikufika kale; ngakhale kuti pali zambiri zomwe zakhala zikuchitika mu sayansi ndi maphunziro zomwe zili ndi zovuta zambiri mu gawo lachilengedwe komanso lachilengedwe.

8 Mayankho kwa "Geomat ayenera kudziwa chiani za kayendetsedwe ka nthaka ya LADM"

  1. sandipatsa ndondomeko pamene ine ndasunga pazithunzi

  2. Eya, mungathe kukhala ndi ppt yomwe imapezeka mu chithunzi

  3. Kwenikweni, mtunduwu umasinthika kudzikolo. Ngati dziko lingaganize kuti zina sizingagwiritse ntchito ... sizigwiritsa ntchito.
    Chofunika ndi chakuti deta yamagwiritsidwe ntchito amagwiritsa ntchito muyezo wa deta yomwe ikugwiritsidwa ntchito.

  4. Ngati zakhala zovuta kale ku Peru kuti zilowe m'nyumba kuti zipeze deta yochepa ya deta, kupeza zonse zomwe akufunsidwa mu LADM ndi zovuta kwambiri. Ndipo zowonjezereka kwambiri kuti mutenge deta ya fifitini yomwe ili ku Callao.

Siyani yankho

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