Kugwiritsira ntchito ziphunzitso zapadera m'maganizo a Geospatial

Amodzi mwa mawu 6 2014 Cadastral, anakulira 1995, omwe akatswiri ambiri a bungwe la International Federation ya oyeza anafunsa ngati adzakhala Cadastre m'chaka 2014, anali "Cadastral Cartography idzakhala mbali yapitayi. Ndondomeko idzakhala kuwonetsa".

Mapulogalamu ojambula zithunzi ndi okalamba kwambiri, ndipo nthawi zonse wakhala akugwira ntchito zofunikira kwambiri kwa munthu, malingana ndi nthawi: Kugonjetsa, Nkhondo, Chipembedzo, Kafukufuku, Ulendo, Zokopa, ndi zina zotero. Masiku ano sizomwe zikusiyana ndi nthawi zina, ngakhale kuti zojambulazo ndizosiyana kwambiri; mapu asanakhale ntchito yeniyeni yeniyeni yowonjezera komanso mtengo wa kukonzekera kwake. Miyezo ya nthawi ino inali yozungulira ku mbali za maonekedwe, monga kukula kwa kalata, chizindikiro cha mzere, mfundo, kudzaza, chiwembu, ndi zina zotero. ngakhale kuti mfundo za sayansi zimakhala zofanana m'nthaŵi yamakono. Kulephera kwamakono kunapangitsa kuti zitheke kusamalira mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya deta, mu masikelo osiyana.

Masiku ano tili ndi mauthenga, makompyuta ndi mauthenga ophatikizana, kotero kuti zosiyana zenizeni zikhoza kuwonetsedwa mofanana ndi deta.

miyambo ya chipolopolo

Chitsanzo chofanizira ndi chimodzi chokha cha zovuta za moyo wathu weniweni, zomwe zikugwiritsidwa ntchito pa nkhani ya kayendedwe ka nthaka:

  • Pali malo oyambirira.
  • Pa cusp iye wapereka ufulu kwa kampani ya foni kuti agwiritse ntchito yake kwa zaka 25.
  • Komanso, pali msewu kuti yamangidwa kwa kampani kuti ali ndi nsanja, imene osati ali ndi ufulu njira koma udindo aganyali 8,000 madola chaka chilichonse pa ntchito yokonza.
  • Nyumba ya mwini nyumba wakhala pansi mumsewu.
  • Kuwonjezera apo, pali dera lotchedwa wachikasu, yemwe malo ake ali olondola ndi pangano limene mwiniwake wakufa walemba. Panganoli linanena kuti mwanayo adzakhala mwini wakeyo, atakwatirana ndipo mwana wake wabadwa. Apo ayi, zabwino ziyenera kukhala katundu wamba. Mwanayo adakwatira, koma adapeza kuti ali wosabala. Khothi lalikulu likhoza kuthetsa chirichonse chokhudzana ndi chifuniro chofuna kupereka chigamulo, makamaka tsopano kuti mkazi wake akugonana komanso sangakhale ndi ana ...

Zikuonekeratu kuti vuto lomaliza ndikudandaula ndikumbukira kukula kwa zochitika zosiyanasiyana. Kufika kwa nthawi ya makompyuta ndithudi kumatanthawuza zofunikira kwambiri pakugwiritsira ntchito chidziwitso, osati chifukwa choti tifunika kukhazikitsa machitidwe a kuyanjana kwa anthu, koma chifukwa chokhudzidwa kugawana chidziwitso m'mayiko onse padziko lapansi. Nkhani ya ISO 19152 Ndi chitsanzo choonekeratu cha momwe zida zonsezi zingakhazikitsidwe pa masitidwe a dziko lapansi, magulu omwe alipo, magulu akuluakulu ndi zikhalidwe zomwe zimafotokozedwa pazomwe zilipo.

M'malo motengera Kuvuta kwa nkhaniyi, chomwe chifuna LADM muyezo (ISO 19152) ndi kuthandiza bungwe la kuyang'anira yosamalira dziko m'dziko kukumana udindo wake generic, kaya gawo lawo, yolumikiza kaundula - Cadastre, etc. Ndipo udindo umenewo udzakhalapo nthawi zonse:

  • Sungani mgwirizano wa ufulu wa phindu.
  • Perekani zambiri kwa anthu zokhudza mbiri iyi.

Kuwongolera kotero ndi mchitidwe wa masamu kugwiritsa ntchito zaka za geospatial.

mfundo zachifundo

1 Mkhalidwewu ndi udindo wa kusonkhanitsa chiyanjano.

Kukhalitsa kwa umunthu ndiukali, makamaka pamene kulengeza kwa zotsatira ndi mpikisano wothamanga, tsiku ndi tsiku timadabwa ndi ntchito zatsopano zogwirizana ndi kayendetsedwe ka chikhulupiliro cha malo. Kufunika kwa muyezo kumangoyamba kuti pakhale mgwirizano pakati kupereka phindu la teknoloji m'mabuku a malo, GIS, Internet, yotseguka, zipangizo zamakono komanso, zofuna za anthu, mabungwe a boma ndi apadera kuti azitha kuyanjana ndi chidziwitso bwino. Kukhalapo kwa miyezo imeneyi, kumapangitsa kuzindikira malamulo ndi zikhalidwe zomwe mungathe kusonyeza zinthu zomwe ziri zenizeni pansi pa chiyankhulo chomwecho. Chivomerezo chovomerezeka padziko lonse cha bungwe la mayiko apadziko lonse (ISO) likuloleza lero, -pa nkhani ya geography- kuti kutuluka kumene kumaphatikizapo kupeza, kukonza, kusanthula, kufotokozera ndi kutumiza deta pakati pa ogwiritsa ntchito, machitidwe ndi malo amathandizidwa. Chotsatira chake, makampani amene nthawi ina ankawongolera udindo wawo ndi zinthu kapena ntchito, tsopano mukufuna kuti muwonetsetse kuti mukutsatira miyezo.

2 Udindo wa OGC mu miyezo ya geospatial.

Pankhani ya malamulo a geospatial, miyezo yambiri ya ISO yomwe ilipo ikupangidwa ndi Tsegulani Zokambirana za Geospatial Consortium OGC -pamaso pa Open GIS Consortium- omwe amapita nawo ku Technical Technical (TC / 211) omwe ali ndi udindo wokhudzana ndi nkhani za malo ndi geomatics, kawirikawiri m'ndandanda wa 19000. Mu OGC, 481 ikugwira nawo ntchito m'zinthu, pakati pa makampani, mabungwe ndi mabungwe a boma okhudzana ndi chigawo cha geospatial. Chifukwa chaichi, kusagwiritsidwa ntchito masiku ano kwa matekinoloje m'munda wandiweyani. Ndifunikanso kuzindikira kuti mbali ya ubwino wa OGC ndi chifukwa cha chikhalidwe cha demokrasi cha chidziwitso cholimbikitsidwa ndi code yaulere. Ngakhale kuti OGC ili ndi dzina limeneli kuchokera ku 1994, zotsatila zake zimachokera ku khama lakale la Geographical Information System: GRASS, yomwe yakhalapo kuyambira m'ma 1970. Ndizosangalatsa kuona, kuti pali njira yosasinthika za magulu a anthu, m'madera ndi m'mayiko osiyanasiyana kuti azitha kuonetsetsa kuti malamulowa ndi othandizira. Pakuti Land Administration umboni ndi njira monga kuuzira, amene akugwiritsa ntchito ndi ISO 19152 monga specialization anira dziko, LANDxml.org ndi mulandu wina, Dziko European Information Service EULIS ndi mkuyu chomwecho.

3 Zovuta za akatswiri atsopano m'dera la geospatial.

xml dziko la umlKufunika kwake kwa miyezo kumafuna akatswiri atsopano ogwirizana ndi nkhani ya geospatial, osati kudziwa kokha koma kukulitsa. Beyond adani kuchifotokoza, kusamalira ndi deta kuwombola, zitsanzo athe kuwerenga, kumasulira malamulo, dongosolo okhudza malo ndi pamwamba zinenero zonse zomwe zalembedwa. Chovuta si chophweka. Ntchito chikhalidwe apatulidwa ku wogonjetsa (oyeza, oyeza), zomwe kusanthula (geographers, akatswiri, Akatswiriwa), imene chakudya nkhani yomaliza (mappers, draftsmen) ndi iwo akuchita machitidwe chifukwa kasamalidwe deta (kompyuta) . Tsopano magulu onsewa akuphatikizidwa pogwiritsa ntchito mateknoloji, omwe amafuna chilankhulo chogwirizanitsa, uwu ndi UML.

Koma: Ndi miyezo ingati yomwe tidziwa?

Tikudziwa kuti pali chiopsezo chotayika m'mabuku, malamulo, malamulo ndi malamulo ambiri. Kuwonjezera pa kugwiritsa ntchito miyezo, yomwe timachita nthawi zonse tikamaphatikizapo gawo la WMS, WFS, ndizosavuta kuti akatswiri adziwe mwatsatanetsatane.

  • Poyambirira, ndi koyenera kuti muzindikire mbali zazikulu za chinenero cha UML. Izi zikhoza kuchitika podziwa chidziwitso cha CSL (chinenero cha schema), chosavuta kumvetsetsa kuyambira pamene chiwerengero chake chikukonzekera pa msinkhu wosiyana ndi dziko lenileni. Takhala tikuchita kuyambira sukulu ya sekondale, pamene tinapanga mapu a malingaliro kapena mapu a maganizo; zomwe zinapangitsa kuti titha kumvetsetsa, kugwirizanitsa, kupatulapo, ndipo CSL sizowonjezera zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito kumunda.
  • Kenaka kudzakhala kosavuta kudziwa malamulo akuluakulu, makamaka omwe akukhudzana ndi ndondomeko yawo pazomwe akupanga deta. Osanenapo ena, Space (ISO 19107), zosatha (ISO 19108), Quality (ISO 19115), Gazetteer (ISO 19112) ndi chiwembu zambiri zazidziwitso (ISO 19115).
  • Mu Mwachitsanzo lachitatu ayeneranso kudziwa zochita za makompyuta zomangamanga, makamaka utumiki wokonda (SOA) omwe bwino Tingaone kuti ndondomeko kuchokera pa pulani cilamulo kwa onse methodological mlingo wa mwatsatanetsatane ndi deta.

PomalizaChoti mfundo topological kulingana geospatial mbali kuti ngakhale kukhala atsopano akatswiri udindo wa geosciences, kodi chifukwa cha kukula mosamala ntchito mfundo ena kupita amalanga tsiku lililonse. Kuphunzira kumvetsa zitsanzo, koma udzawonjezera mwayi kwa ogwira ntchito amene amayembekezera kukhala mpikisano mu sewero watsopano mwa nkhani lawolawo.

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